Select notes:
Translation:

16. Moliant i'r Seintiau (Huw Cae Llwyd)

edited by Eurig Salisbury

A poem in praise of God and the saints and of Robert Tully, bishop of St David’s, by Huw Cae Llwyd. Date 1460‒82.

Rhoes Duw wared i’n gwledydd:
Rhai da saint yn rhodio sydd,
Llais brodyr, llu ysbrydol,
Llawenhawn bob llu ’n eu hôl.
5Pond doniog pan y’n tynnen’
Saint o’i rhwym, y seintwar1 o’i rhwym, y seintwar The pronoun ’i refers to the seintwar ‘sanctuary’. hen?
Rhwym sentes2 sentes The edition follows GSDT 6.30 Gyffes, mewn sentes y sai’ and pp. 139–40, where sentes is understood as a form of sentens ‘sentence’ used to complete the rhyme in that line’s cynghanedd. The same is true here, where sentes completes the rhyme (with dines-) in this line’s cynghanedd lusg, although it is not noted as a variant form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. sentens. On the possible significance of this word in the wider context of the poem, see the introductory notes. drwy’r dinesydd,
Weithion y rhwym aeth yn rhydd.3 Weithion y rhwym aeth yn rhydd See ll. 11–12n.
Oes un wlad na roeson’ lw
10Gwedy hyn heb gadw hwnnw?
Gwedy’n rhoi i 1 i This is not in the manuscript, probably as a result of contracting rhoi i into a diphthong. gyd yn y rhwyd,
Gloyw o’n perigl4 perigl A form of perygl, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. y’n purwyd.5 Ll. 11–12. Cf. Psalms 66.10–12 ‘For you, O God, have tested us … You brought us into the net, you placed a crushing burden on our backs … yet you have brought us out to a place of abundance.’
Troi ac eiriol trugaredd
Y mae’r byw a’r marw o’r bedd.
15Saint y wlad a roesant lef,
Saint Enlli⁠6 saint Enlli The small island at the tip of the Llŷn peninsula was said to be the burial place of twenty thousand saints. sy hwnt unllef.
Rhoddes yr uchel Geli
Rhodd o nef i’n rhyddhau ni.
Aeth Dewi7 Dewi On the saint, see BDewi (Introduction).’n tad, prelad prudd,
20Ataw, Rhobert,8 Rhobert Robert Tully, bishop of St David’s 1460–81, see the introductory notes. â rhybudd,9 rhybudd On the possible significance of this word, see the introductory notes.
Gŵr o gnawd y Gŵr10 y Gŵr Christ. a’i gwnaeth
A roes gwbl i’r esgobaeth.11 [y]r esgobaeth ‘The diocese’ of St David’s, see the introductory notes.
Ni bu fyth ei wyneb fo
Heb wên deg i’n bendigo;
25Ni bu wlad hyd na bai les
Rag uffern roi y gyffes. 2 Rag uffern roi y gyffes Note that the orthography of the manuscript consistently uses both R and rr to denote rh (see ll. 1, 6, 7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 20, 56; contrast l. 2), therefore the edition follows the manuscript reading, rac vffern roi y gyffes.
Yr oeddem wedy’i weddi 3 wedy’i weddi The manuscript reading, wedy ỽeddi, probably implies i here, but wedy’r weddi is also possible and would complete the consonantal cynghanedd in this line. However, r was occasionally left unanswered at the beginning of a line (r wreiddgoll).
Yn gweled nef i’n gwlad ni.

Gyrrodd gynt, graddau a gaid,
30Gŵr12 gŵr Lludd, see l. 30n Cornaniaid. o’n ynys Gornaniaid.13 Cornaniaid A unique form of Coraniaid, the first of three oppressions which came to Britain according to ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ and the Triads, see Williams 1910: xi–xiv; CLlLl2 xxxii–xxxiii; TYP 92–3; cf. GLM LXXI.29–32. Lludd defeated the Coraniaid, a race of incomers who could hear every word uttered in the open, by following the counsel of his brother, Llefelys, who fashioned a magical horn that enabled them to conspire privately. A demon which was found in the horn was washed away with Llefelys’s wine, see CLlLl2 3–4. This part of the story may have influenced the form Cornaniaid (corn ‘horn’), but cf. also a version of the story found in Ellis Gruffudd’s Chronicle, ibid. 17–20 Koronaniaid.
Dŵr glân14 dŵr glân ‘Holy water’, cf. GLM LXXII.39 (the combination is not noted in GPC). In ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’, the Coraniaid are defeated with water infused with crushed insects (see CLlLl2 3), which may suggest reading dŵr glan ‘stagnant water’, but the combination is not noted in GPC (furthermore, the orthography of the manuscript reading, glan, suggests that glân is the correct reading). fu driagl yna
Dros dai’r doeth, dros dir a da.15 Ll. 31–2. To rid Britain of the oppressive Coraniaid, Llefelys urges his brother, Lludd, to gather both the Coraniaid and the people of Britain together in one place and sprinkle magic water over them, see CLlLl2 3–4. Huw Cae Llwyd outlines this story but refers specifically to the act of sprinkling water Dros dai’r doeth, dros dir a da ‘over wise men’s houses, over land and wealth’, whereas the text of ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ refers to sprinkling water ar pawp yn gyfredin ‘over one and all’.
Gyrrwn ninnau 4 Gyrrwn ninnau The manuscript reading, Gyrrwn Innav, is amended. The singular imperfect form is possible both in this line and l. 42, but it seems more sensible to follow the plural forms in ll. 34, 36 and 40. The words were probably incorrectly divided in the manuscript. Gornaniaid
A gwall o’n plith, gwell yw’n plaid;
35Dygwn lle mae yn gaead
Dŵr swyn16 dŵr swyn See the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. dŵr. i gloi drysau’n gwlad.
Delwau a’r llu’n eu dilyn,
Manerau saint – mae’n ras hyn.
At faner sant o Fynyw⁠17 Mynyw The Welsh name for St David’s in the Middle Ages.
40Mae pwys18 pwys Cf. GG.net 27.52 Mae pwys holl Bowys lle bych ‘the weight of all Powys lies wherever you are’. ein tir, mabsant yw.19 Mae pwys ein tir, mabsant yw The -b- in mabsant becomes voiceless under the influence of -s-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 211–12.
Llu du a bellha Dewi,20 Dewi See l. 19n.
A llu gwyn oll a gawn ni. 5 a gawn ni The manuscript reading, a gawn i, is amended in line with the reasoning outlined in l. 33n.
Un mabsant o’r cant nis caid
Heb eu tynnu’n gapteniaid:21 Heb eu tynnu’n gapteniaid The -t- in gapteniaid causes lenition to -p-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 212–13.
45Torch Gynog,22 torch Gynog Cynog, the foremost saint of Brycheiniog, was renowned for having a marvellous torque. It was kept at Merthyr Cynog, where it was seen by Gerald of Wales on his journey through Wales in 1188. Both Hywel Dafi and Dafydd Epynt praised it as a gift from heaven. It was presumably destroyed at the Reformation. Further, see MWPSS poems 14 and 15. trycha gynnen,23 Torch Gynog, trycha gynnen Cf. Hywel Dafi in his poem for Cynog, MWPSS 14.39–40 Torch o nef, trychu a wnaeth / Trwy filaen, twrf o alaeth ‘A torque from heaven, it sliced through / The villein, a clamour of lamentation’.
Tor y sis,24 tor y sis A passage that probably stands apart from the main sentence, which follows on from the first line of the couplet. Tor y sis ar bob trais hen ‘Raise the siege on every old oppression’ does not seem meaningful in this context, for raising the siege would simply aid the enemy. On sis, a form of sîj ‘siege’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ar bob trais hen!
Cynydr25 Cynydr A form of Cynidr, patron saint of a number of churches in Brycheiniog. deg, hen awdur26 awdur See GPC Ar Lein s.v. (b) ‘protector, patron’. da,
Cur elynion creulona’!
Gwisged ar a gred i’r Grog
50Guras y Mab trugarog.27 Ll. 49–50. See ll. 53–6n. The words y mab ‘the son’ could refer to Cynidr, but Christ is more likely, cf. ll. 60.
Cair ystondardd Crist wyndeg,
Cair ystâl,28 ystâl ‘Throne’, but ‘company, throng’ is also possible, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. stâl (a), (b). wrth bob croes deg.
Arfau Iesu ar feysydd
Yn gorfod sarffod y sydd;
55Moes, od awn i maes o dŷ,
Wisgo’r rhain os gwir hynny.29 Ll. 53–6. See Isaiah 59.17, ‘[The Lord] put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helmet of salvation on his head; he put on garments of vengeance for clothing, and wrapped himself in zeal as a cloak’; Ephesians 6.13–17, ‘take up the whole armour of God … having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith … and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.’ The reference to [g]orfod sarffod ‘vanquishing serpents’ brings to mind Luke 10.19, ‘Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy’, as well as the iconic serpent in the Garden of Eden, see Genesis 3.
Os gadan’, mae’n wisgedig
Wisg Mair30 [g]wisg Mair A proper name would usually mutate following a feminine noun, that is wisg Fair, see TC 107–8; cf. l. 45 torch Gynog. The consonantal cynghanedd in this line may have distorted the common rule, or Huw Cae Llwyd may have understood gwisg as a masculine noun, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. dros Gymry a drig.
Gwall mawr ynn golli morwyn
60Y bu’r un Mab er ein mwyn.
Ni roes ynn siartr ar gartref
Ond Duw a’r saint o’i ras Ef.
O buon wers (ein bai ni 6 ein bai ni The orthography of the manuscript is of little use in determining whether to read ein or i’n here, cf. ll. 18 Rodd o nef yn rryddhav ni, 60 vn mab er yn mwyn. Although, i’n bai ni is possible, the reading in the edition seems more meaningful.)
Dan gudd, a dyn yn gweiddi,
65Duw a stofed31 stofed Third singular imperative form of ystofi, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ystofaf1 (b). As for the meaning, the edition follows CO3 102, 199 ‘plan, plot’ and GBF 301 ‘trefnu’ (‘to plan’). Ei stafell
Gyda ni – moes Ei gadw’n well!

God gave our lands salvation:
some good saints are on the move,
a voice of monks, a spiritual host,
let us rejoice, every host, after them.
5Wasn’t it fortunate when
the saints drew us from its bonds, the ancient sanctuary?1 o’i rhwym, y seintwar The pronoun ’i refers to the seintwar ‘sanctuary’.
Bond of a sentence2 sentes The edition follows GSDT 6.30 Gyffes, mewn sentes y sai’ and pp. 139–40, where sentes is understood as a form of sentens ‘sentence’ used to complete the rhyme in that line’s cynghanedd. The same is true here, where sentes completes the rhyme (with dines-) in this line’s cynghanedd lusg, although it is not noted as a variant form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. sentens. On the possible significance of this word in the wider context of the poem, see the introductory notes. throughout the towns,
now the bond has been undone.3 Weithion y rhwym aeth yn rhydd See ll. 11–12n.
Is there any land [whose inhabitants] didn’t swear an oath
10and failed to keep it after this?
After we were all placed in the net,
from our peril4 perigl A form of perygl, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. we were cleansed entirely.5 Ll. 11–12. Cf. Psalms 66.10–12 ‘For you, O God, have tested us … You brought us into the net, you placed a crushing burden on our backs … yet you have brought us out to a place of abundance.’
Both the living and the dead from the grave
convert and plead for mercy.
15The saints of the land gave a cry,
the saints of Bardsey6 saint Enlli The small island at the tip of the Llŷn peninsula was said to be the burial place of twenty thousand saints. yonder give the same cry.
The Lord on high gave to us
a gift from heaven to save us.
David7 Dewi On the saint, see BDewi (Introduction). our father, wise prelate,
20went to him, Robert,8 Rhobert Robert Tully, bishop of St David’s 1460–81, see the introductory notes. with a warning,9 rhybudd On the possible significance of this word, see the introductory notes.
a man of the same flesh as the Man10 y Gŵr Christ. who had made him
who gave everything to the diocese.11 [y]r esgobaeth ‘The diocese’ of St David’s, see the introductory notes.
Never was his face at any time
without a fair smile to bless us;
25it was no land for as long as there was no benefit
to be had from confession in the face of hell.
After his prayer we saw
heaven in our land.

A man12 gŵr Lludd, see l. 30n Cornaniaid. once drove, merits were obtained,
30Coraniaid13 Cornaniaid A unique form of Coraniaid, the first of three oppressions which came to Britain according to ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ and the Triads, see Williams 1910: xi–xiv; CLlLl2 xxxii–xxxiii; TYP 92–3; cf. GLM LXXI.29–32. Lludd defeated the Coraniaid, a race of incomers who could hear every word uttered in the open, by following the counsel of his brother, Llefelys, who fashioned a magical horn that enabled them to conspire privately. A demon which was found in the horn was washed away with Llefelys’s wine, see CLlLl2 3–4. This part of the story may have influenced the form Cornaniaid (corn ‘horn’), but cf. also a version of the story found in Ellis Gruffudd’s Chronicle, ibid. 17–20 Koronaniaid. from our island.
Holy water14 dŵr glân ‘Holy water’, cf. GLM LXXII.39 (the combination is not noted in GPC). In ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’, the Coraniaid are defeated with water infused with crushed insects (see CLlLl2 3), which may suggest reading dŵr glan ‘stagnant water’, but the combination is not noted in GPC (furthermore, the orthography of the manuscript reading, glan, suggests that glân is the correct reading). was a salve in that case
over wise men’s houses, over land and wealth.15 Ll. 31–2. To rid Britain of the oppressive Coraniaid, Llefelys urges his brother, Lludd, to gather both the Coraniaid and the people of Britain together in one place and sprinkle magic water over them, see CLlLl2 3–4. Huw Cae Llwyd outlines this story but refers specifically to the act of sprinkling water Dros dai’r doeth, dros dir a da ‘over wise men’s houses, over land and wealth’, whereas the text of ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ refers to sprinkling water ar pawp yn gyfredin ‘over one and all’.
We too will drive both Coraniaid
and deceit from our midst, our host is superior;
35where it’s a covering we’ll bear
holy water16 dŵr swyn See the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. dŵr. to lock the doors of our land.
Images with the host following them,
saints’ banners – this is grace.
The weight17 Mynyw The Welsh name for St David’s in the Middle Ages. of our land is behind the banner
40of a saint from St David’s,18 pwys Cf. GG.net 27.52 Mae pwys holl Bowys lle bych ‘the weight of all Powys lies wherever you are’. a patron saint is he.19 Mae pwys ein tir, mabsant yw The -b- in mabsant becomes voiceless under the influence of -s-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 211–12.
David20 Dewi See l. 19n. will drive away a black host,
and there will be an entirely white host for us.
Not one patron saint would be found
from the crowd without making them into captains:21 Heb eu tynnu’n gapteniaid The -t- in gapteniaid causes lenition to -p-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 212–13.
45Cynog’s torque,22 torch Gynog Cynog, the foremost saint of Brycheiniog, was renowned for having a marvellous torque. It was kept at Merthyr Cynog, where it was seen by Gerald of Wales on his journey through Wales in 1188. Both Hywel Dafi and Dafydd Epynt praised it as a gift from heaven. It was presumably destroyed at the Reformation. Further, see MWPSS poems 14 and 15. strike down strife23 Torch Gynog, trycha gynnen Cf. Hywel Dafi in his poem for Cynog, MWPSS 14.39–40 Torch o nef, trychu a wnaeth / Trwy filaen, twrf o alaeth ‘A torque from heaven, it sliced through / The villein, a clamour of lamentation’.
against every old oppression, raise the siege!24 tor y sis A passage that probably stands apart from the main sentence, which follows on from the first line of the couplet. Tor y sis ar bob trais hen ‘Raise the siege on every old oppression’ does not seem meaningful in this context, for raising the siege would simply aid the enemy. On sis, a form of sîj ‘siege’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v.
Fair Cynidr,25 Cynydr A form of Cynidr, patron saint of a number of churches in Brycheiniog. good old protector,26 awdur See GPC Ar Lein s.v. (b) ‘protector, patron’.
beat the most cruel enemies!
May he who has faith in the Rood
50wear the merciful Son’s cuirass.27 Ll. 49–50. See ll. 53–6n. The words y mab ‘the son’ could refer to Cynidr, but Christ is more likely, cf. ll. 60.
Blessed and fair Christ’s standard
is by every fair cross, [and] a throne.28 ystâl ‘Throne’, but ‘company, throng’ is also possible, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. stâl (a), (b).
On battlefields Jesus’s weapons
vanquish serpents;
55let us, if we go out of doors,
wear these if that is true.29 Ll. 53–6. See Isaiah 59.17, ‘[The Lord] put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helmet of salvation on his head; he put on garments of vengeance for clothing, and wrapped himself in zeal as a cloak’; Ephesians 6.13–17, ‘take up the whole armour of God … having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith … and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.’ The reference to [g]orfod sarffod ‘vanquishing serpents’ brings to mind Luke 10.19, ‘Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy’, as well as the iconic serpent in the Garden of Eden, see Genesis 3.
If they allow it, Mary’s vestment30 [g]wisg Mair A proper name would usually mutate following a feminine noun, that is wisg Fair, see TC 107–8; cf. l. 45 torch Gynog. The consonantal cynghanedd in this line may have distorted the common rule, or Huw Cae Llwyd may have understood gwisg as a masculine noun, see GPC Ar Lein s.v.
which remains over the people of Wales is suitable to be worn.
It’s a great failure for us to lose [the support of] a virgin
60 [from] whom came the one Son for our sake.
No one gave us a charter guaranteeing a home
except God and the saints by His grace.
If we were for a time (our own fault)
in hiding, with mankind lamenting,
65may God set up31 stofed Third singular imperative form of ystofi, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ystofaf1 (b). As for the meaning, the edition follows CO3 102, 199 ‘plan, plot’ and GBF 301 ‘trefnu’ (‘to plan’). His chamber
with us – let Him be better observed!

1 o’i rhwym, y seintwar The pronoun ’i refers to the seintwar ‘sanctuary’.

2 sentes The edition follows GSDT 6.30 Gyffes, mewn sentes y sai’ and pp. 139–40, where sentes is understood as a form of sentens ‘sentence’ used to complete the rhyme in that line’s cynghanedd. The same is true here, where sentes completes the rhyme (with dines-) in this line’s cynghanedd lusg, although it is not noted as a variant form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. sentens. On the possible significance of this word in the wider context of the poem, see the introductory notes.

3 Weithion y rhwym aeth yn rhydd See ll. 11–12n.

4 perigl A form of perygl, see GPC Ar Lein s.v.

5 Ll. 11–12. Cf. Psalms 66.10–12 ‘For you, O God, have tested us … You brought us into the net, you placed a crushing burden on our backs … yet you have brought us out to a place of abundance.’

6 saint Enlli The small island at the tip of the Llŷn peninsula was said to be the burial place of twenty thousand saints.

7 Dewi On the saint, see BDewi (Introduction).

8 Rhobert Robert Tully, bishop of St David’s 1460–81, see the introductory notes.

9 rhybudd On the possible significance of this word, see the introductory notes.

10 y Gŵr Christ.

11 [y]r esgobaeth ‘The diocese’ of St David’s, see the introductory notes.

12 gŵr Lludd, see l. 30n Cornaniaid.

13 Cornaniaid A unique form of Coraniaid, the first of three oppressions which came to Britain according to ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ and the Triads, see Williams 1910: xi–xiv; CLlLl2 xxxii–xxxiii; TYP 92–3; cf. GLM LXXI.29–32. Lludd defeated the Coraniaid, a race of incomers who could hear every word uttered in the open, by following the counsel of his brother, Llefelys, who fashioned a magical horn that enabled them to conspire privately. A demon which was found in the horn was washed away with Llefelys’s wine, see CLlLl2 3–4. This part of the story may have influenced the form Cornaniaid (corn ‘horn’), but cf. also a version of the story found in Ellis Gruffudd’s Chronicle, ibid. 17–20 Koronaniaid.

14 dŵr glân ‘Holy water’, cf. GLM LXXII.39 (the combination is not noted in GPC). In ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’, the Coraniaid are defeated with water infused with crushed insects (see CLlLl2 3), which may suggest reading dŵr glan ‘stagnant water’, but the combination is not noted in GPC (furthermore, the orthography of the manuscript reading, glan, suggests that glân is the correct reading).

15 Ll. 31–2. To rid Britain of the oppressive Coraniaid, Llefelys urges his brother, Lludd, to gather both the Coraniaid and the people of Britain together in one place and sprinkle magic water over them, see CLlLl2 3–4. Huw Cae Llwyd outlines this story but refers specifically to the act of sprinkling water Dros dai’r doeth, dros dir a da ‘over wise men’s houses, over land and wealth’, whereas the text of ‘Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys’ refers to sprinkling water ar pawp yn gyfredin ‘over one and all’.

16 dŵr swyn See the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. dŵr.

17 Mynyw The Welsh name for St David’s in the Middle Ages.

18 pwys Cf. GG.net 27.52 Mae pwys holl Bowys lle bych ‘the weight of all Powys lies wherever you are’.

19 Mae pwys ein tir, mabsant yw The -b- in mabsant becomes voiceless under the influence of -s-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 211–12.

20 Dewi See l. 19n.

21 Heb eu tynnu’n gapteniaid The -t- in gapteniaid causes lenition to -p-, therefore completing the consonantal cynghanedd in this line, see CD 212–13.

22 torch Gynog Cynog, the foremost saint of Brycheiniog, was renowned for having a marvellous torque. It was kept at Merthyr Cynog, where it was seen by Gerald of Wales on his journey through Wales in 1188. Both Hywel Dafi and Dafydd Epynt praised it as a gift from heaven. It was presumably destroyed at the Reformation. Further, see MWPSS poems 14 and 15.

23 Torch Gynog, trycha gynnen Cf. Hywel Dafi in his poem for Cynog, MWPSS 14.39–40 Torch o nef, trychu a wnaeth / Trwy filaen, twrf o alaeth ‘A torque from heaven, it sliced through / The villein, a clamour of lamentation’.

24 tor y sis A passage that probably stands apart from the main sentence, which follows on from the first line of the couplet. Tor y sis ar bob trais hen ‘Raise the siege on every old oppression’ does not seem meaningful in this context, for raising the siege would simply aid the enemy. On sis, a form of sîj ‘siege’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v.

25 Cynydr A form of Cynidr, patron saint of a number of churches in Brycheiniog.

26 awdur See GPC Ar Lein s.v. (b) ‘protector, patron’.

27 Ll. 49–50. See ll. 53–6n. The words y mab ‘the son’ could refer to Cynidr, but Christ is more likely, cf. ll. 60.

28 ystâl ‘Throne’, but ‘company, throng’ is also possible, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. stâl (a), (b).

29 Ll. 53–6. See Isaiah 59.17, ‘[The Lord] put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helmet of salvation on his head; he put on garments of vengeance for clothing, and wrapped himself in zeal as a cloak’; Ephesians 6.13–17, ‘take up the whole armour of God … having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith … and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.’ The reference to [g]orfod sarffod ‘vanquishing serpents’ brings to mind Luke 10.19, ‘Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy’, as well as the iconic serpent in the Garden of Eden, see Genesis 3.

30 [g]wisg Mair A proper name would usually mutate following a feminine noun, that is wisg Fair, see TC 107–8; cf. l. 45 torch Gynog. The consonantal cynghanedd in this line may have distorted the common rule, or Huw Cae Llwyd may have understood gwisg as a masculine noun, see GPC Ar Lein s.v.

31 stofed Third singular imperative form of ystofi, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ystofaf1 (b). As for the meaning, the edition follows CO3 102, 199 ‘plan, plot’ and GBF 301 ‘trefnu’ (‘to plan’).

1 i This is not in the manuscript, probably as a result of contracting rhoi i into a diphthong.

2 Rag uffern roi y gyffes Note that the orthography of the manuscript consistently uses both R and rr to denote rh (see ll. 1, 6, 7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 20, 56; contrast l. 2), therefore the edition follows the manuscript reading, rac vffern roi y gyffes.

3 wedy’i weddi The manuscript reading, wedy ỽeddi, probably implies i here, but wedy’r weddi is also possible and would complete the consonantal cynghanedd in this line. However, r was occasionally left unanswered at the beginning of a line (r wreiddgoll).

4 Gyrrwn ninnau The manuscript reading, Gyrrwn Innav, is amended. The singular imperfect form is possible both in this line and l. 42, but it seems more sensible to follow the plural forms in ll. 34, 36 and 40. The words were probably incorrectly divided in the manuscript.

5 a gawn ni The manuscript reading, a gawn i, is amended in line with the reasoning outlined in l. 33n.

6 ein bai ni The orthography of the manuscript is of little use in determining whether to read ein or i’n here, cf. ll. 18 Rodd o nef yn rryddhav ni, 60 vn mab er yn mwyn. Although, i’n bai ni is possible, the reading in the edition seems more meaningful.