Select notes:
Translation:

43. Moliant i Ddeiniol (Syr Dafydd Trefor)

edited by Eurig Salisbury

A poem by Syr Dafydd Trefor in praise of Deiniol and Thomas Skevington, bishop of Bangor, on the renovation of the church and bishop’s palace. Date 1527.

Mae ’m Mangor drysor a drig
Yn gadarn fendigedig,
Ac un o’r saith gefnder gwyn1 ⁠un o’r saith gefnder gwyn See Saith Gefnder Sant.
(Santeiddia’ saith saint oeddyn’):
5Deiniel,⁠2 ⁠Deiniel For other forms of his name, see G 296 s.v. Danyel2. ni wnaeth odineb,
Fo fynnai na wnâi neb.3 Ll. 5–6. There is nothing in the Latin lectiones that associates Deiniol with this instruction to reject adultery. The poet may have included it because of the cynghanedd, or possibly because Deiniol had lived as a hermit in his youth (see ll. 7‒8n). 1 ⁠Fo fynnai na wnâi neb A six syllable line. The scribe may have intended to write the disyllabic form gwnaai, but it would be surprising to find this rare form, found only in the work of some 14c. poets, in a poem composed during the first half of the 16c., see GGMD iii 8.12; GLlBH 5.6; G 695. Following LlGC 3048D fo fynnai na wnelai neb, wnâi may be a mistake for wnelai, but this is more than likely an informed attempt to lengthen the line. Another possibility is that this l. originally had Efo at the beginning, but note that l. 36 is also a six syllable line in every source, and cf. l. 21n (explanatory).
Meudwy ydoedd meudwydy 2 ⁠meudwydy The manuscript reading, medwydy, is emended. The same error is found in LlGC 3048D.
Pen fu ar fraich Penfro fry.4 Ll. 7–8. This story is fleshed out in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 9‒10 ‘So blessed Daniel … when he was of full age, having left his parents and his native region, desiring to lead the hermit and solitary life … came to a certain mountain, which is now named “Daniel’s Mount,” near Pembroke in the diocese of Mynyw; considering that that place, because it was remote from the tumult of men, was serviceable and suitable for gathering the fruits of divine co[n]templation, he determined to stay … on that same mountain serving his Lord.’ Deiniol was welcomed by the lord of the place and was given land, on which he built a hut where today, state the lectiones, stands a great church dedicated to him. It is then noted that Deiniol lived ‘on a mountain on the southern side of Pembroke.’ A church dedicated to Deiniol is located on St Daniel’s Hill (Mynydd Deiniol) not far south of Pembroke, see Harris 1955: 17–19; Lloyd et al. 2004: 384; LBS ii 330; WATU 194. It seems that [b]raich Penfro⁠ (literally ‘arm of Pembroke’) is a specific reference to the southern headland of Pembrokeshire, see ibid. 309 (map).
Duw Iesu a’i dewisodd
10Yn dad i fil, daed ei fodd 3 ⁠daed ei fodd The i between these two words in the manuscript reading, daedifodd, may be a later addition. The scribe may have thought initially that daed was disyllabic (däed), before noticing that his source also contained a pronoun, cf. Guto’r Glyn’s use of daed in both monosyllabic and disyllabic forms, GG.net 60.11–12 Bôn derwen benadurwaed, / Bwclai o Stanlai, nos daed, 47.59 Odid fyth, er däed fo. Note also that daed is monosyllabic, in all likelihood, in l. 66 of this poem. Furthermore, nouns do not mutate after an equative form. This may have been the first of four additions that the scribe made to his text, all of which are followed in this edition in view of the fact that the addition in l. 25 (see the note) is clearly genuine, see also ll. 54n, 60n.,
Ac ni wyddiad ein tad da
Ladiniaith olud yna;5 Ll. 9–12. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 10‒11, ‘In process of time, the cathedral of Bangor being vacant by the death of its bishop, those to whom in the said church the election or provision of a bishop pertained having met together, and the grace of the Holy Spirit having been invoked, it was divinely revealed that they should send at once to the Pembroke district, and should choose as bishop and pastor for their church a certain hermit, dwelling on a mountain … and it was added that he was called Daniel.’ Deiniol was greatly surprised when the messengers stated their purpose: ‘“How can this be, that you claim that I am chosen as bishop, when I am almost wholly unlearned, nor have I any knowledge of letters?” They answered him and said, “It is God’s will that so it should be.”’
Ni adwaenai garrai o’i gob 4 ⁠Ni adwaenai garrai o’i gob An eight syllable line that could be shortened by contracting ni a- into a diphthong or by abbreviating ni ’dwaenai, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor had a tendency to vary the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.
Oni wisgwyd e’n esgob.6 Ll. 13–14. According to the Latin lectiones, Deiniol did not become bishop until after he had received ecclesiastical learning from God, see ll. 15‒18n; Harris 1955: 11‒12. The Book of Llandaff states that Deiniol was ordained by Dyfrig, but a later note on the side of the page states that he was ordained by Teilo, for Teilo (like Deiniol, see ll. 29‒34n) was associated with Penalun in Pembrokeshire, see LL 71, 337; WCD 191, 607. According to the first line of the couplet, when he came to Bangor Deiniol was so unassuming that he did not know the difference between a simple rag and a cleric’s cope (another similar interpretation is possible, ‘he didn’t know one thread of his cope’).
15Dŵad canu7 ⁠dŵad canu The verb dŵad is a form of dywawd, the third singular past form of dywedyd ‘to say’, see G 431. The object of the verb, canu, is unmutated, see TC 223. Ti Dëwm8 ⁠Ti Dëwm The first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘Oh God, we praise you’, see ODCC 1592–3. For a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM. Ti may reflect Middle English pronounciation, following the gradual change from long e to i in the great vowel shift.
I gaerau Crist a’r Gŵr crwm.9 ⁠[y] Gŵr crwm It is suggested in GSDT 14.16n that this is a reference to the Christ of Mostyn, a 15c. wooden image of Christ sitting in meditation before the crucifixion, see Lord 2003: 163 for a picture and short discussion. However, Lord notes that although the image is now kept at the church in Bangor, it may well have come originally from Llanrwst, ‘presumably from Maenan abbey’, and it is unclear whether it was at Bangor when Syr Dafydd Trefor composed his poem in 1527. Furthermore, Christ is depicted in a rather straight-backed position, and it is therefore likely that the poet was in fact referring to a different image. As in most 16c. churches, there was doubtless a large rood in the church at Bangor that may have depicted Christ’s crooked body. Another possibility is that Syr Dafydd Trefor was referring to a 14c. or 15c. stone carving of Christ at the church, in which he is depicted on the cross with his head to one side and his legs bent in a ‘crooked’ pose, see ibid. 174 for a picture. A different reading is possible, namely ar gwr crwm, that is ‘Christ on a crooked corner’, as an obscure description of the crucifixion.
Gŵr mud 5 ⁠mud The manuscript reading, mvl, is emended for the cynghanedd. a gâi ramadeg,
Bugail Duw’n dwyn bagal deg.10 Ll. 15–18. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 11, ‘Then the clergy of that church, accompanying the same Daniel to the high altar of the church and singing most devoutly Te Deum laudamus, praised the mercy of the Saviour. And when St. Daniel arose from his prayer, he was so filled with ecclesiastical knowledge of all learning that no one in Wales was then seen like to him in knowledge and culture.’ It is not explicitly stated, as Syr Dafydd Trefor does in lines 15‒16, that Deiniol himself sang the Latin hymn. 6 ⁠Bugail Duw’n dwyn bagal deg The edition follows the manuscript reading for bagal, which may be a dialectal form, and emends dvw yn to shorten the length of the line, but Duw yn dwyn bagl deg is also possible.

Mae’n falsomẃm neu flas mêl
20Sôn dynion am Sain Deiniel.
Aml iawn yn fy mlaen i 7 ⁠Aml iawn yn fy mlaen i A six syllable line, but aml may have been disyllabic here, as suggested by the manuscript reading, amyl.
Wrthiau hwn wrth eu henwi:11 Ll. 21–2. The same statement, to all purposes, is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘it would take too long to relate the miracles which the Lord vouchsafed to work through his merits, both while he lived and after his departure, for they were very many.’ If -n in the second half of the line is counted in this consonantal cynghanedd, the break in the line must fall after yn (on placing a main stress on minor words, see CD 266‒8).
Ychen gwâr i gyfarwr,
Lladron a’u dugon’ o’r dŵr,
25Deiniel yn lle’r 8 ⁠lle This word, without which the line is meaningless, was added later by the scribe. eidionnau
A roes y ceirw i’r iau, 9 ⁠A roes y ceirw i’r iau To ensure a seven syllable line, ceirw must be disyllabic. However, it is monosyllabic in LlGC 3048D a roes y ceirw yn yr iav. It is possible that yn was lost from the text in C 2.114 (cf. l. 25n lle) but, in light of ll. 6n and 59n, it is more than likely an addition. On Syr Dafydd Trefor’s irregular use of words ending with -w as both syllabic and non-syllabic, see GSDT 24–5.
Rhoi’r lladron brychion eu brig
Acw i orwedd fal cerrig;12 Ll. 23–8. This miracle is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘On a certain night, while [Deiniol] was dwelling on the mountain of Pembroke, two evilly-disposed men came thither to steal the oxen which had been lent to the holy man for ploughing his land … The holy man, however, hearing from his lodging the noise of men and animals, saw through a window the thieves leading away the oxen, and, going out, he cried, “Wait, wait a little, in the name of the Lord[.]” But they, when they heard his voice, ran the faster, and St. Daniel, having made the sign of the cross towards the oxen, lest he who had provided them should suffer loss through his praiseworthy act, straightway the thieves were turned in to two stones on the very spot, like unto men standing, unto this day. But the animals were tuned back to their accustomed pastures.’ For other references in the poetry to saints turning thieves into stone, see IlltudLM ll. 85–6; MWPSS 1.43–4. Although Syr Dafydd Trefor’s description corresponds closely to the lectiones, he also refers to the colour of the thieves’ hair and to the fact that Deiniol had placed the yoke on stags instead of the oxen. In the lectiones, the yoking of the stags is treated as a separate miracle that follows the one above, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘Another time, however, when the holy man could not find animals with which to plough his land, behold there came forth from the wood of Pencoed, which was close by, two great stags to the place where the land needing to be ploughed was situate, and, bending their necks to the yoke, they drew the plough all day like tame beasts, and, when the day’s work was done, they returned to the aforesaid wood.’ For other examples of this widely repeated miracle, see WSSPL 81–3.
A bun, gwedi chwyddo’i bol
30Gan wenwyn drwg, gwenwynol,
O ras y sant, pen roes hon
Yn ei phen ddŵr o’i ffynnon,
Afrifed bryfed heb wres
Beiriog o’i chorff a boeres.13 Ll. 29–34. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 13, ‘a certain woman from the district of Caerwy, in the diocese of Mynyw, was so swollen beyond measure that she could find no relief by any advice of physicians. At last, coming to the church of St. Daniel, and afterwards to the aforesaid well, and imploring the saint’s help she drank of that water so as to regain health and, before leaving, came to the entrance of the church, and cast forth from her mouth, while many stood by and observed, three horrible worms, each with four feet, and the woman was made whole from that very hour.’ The only difference between the lectiones and Syr Dafydd Trefor’s poem is that the first mentions only three insects while the second refers to thousands. It seems that the woman lived near Carew in Pembrokeshire, not far from Deiniol’s church near Pembroke and a well associated with the saint at Penalun near Tenby, see Harris 1955: 19; LBS ii 330; Lloyd et al. 2004: 354. On Deiniol’s association with Pembrokeshire in his youth, see ll. 7‒8n. According to the Latin life of Cadog, this saint’s well could also heal similar ailments, see VSB 94–5.
35Galwn, bawb, rhag ein gelyn,14 ⁠Galwn, bawb, rhag ein gelyn There is a proest rhyme in this consonantal cynghanedd but, like many other 15c. poets, Syr Dafydd Trefor probably did not consider it a fault, see CD 255–7.
Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn!’15 ⁠Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn Faulty cynghanedd. Further, see the textual note on this line. 10 ⁠Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn A six syllable line with an irregular cynghanedd. The source may have been defective. However, there are many other similar examples in the work of Syr Dafydd Trefor, see GSDT 24–5.

Codi’i ris,16 ⁠codi’i ris The poet may be referring literally to the work of raising a set of stairs as part of the building work at the church in Bangor, or figuratively to the process of raising the status of the church. cadair Iesu,
Toi’r eglwys fawr, tir glas fu.
Fy swydd dan lythyr a sêl17 ⁠swydd dan lythyr a sêl Syr Dafydd Trefor was commissioned formally by the church officials, if not the bishop himself, to compose this poem. Cf. the llythr caead ‘sealed letter’ that Rhisiart Cyffin, dean of Bangor, gave to the poet-harpist Llywelyn ap Gutun, under rather different circumstances, according to one of Llywelyn’s scornful poems to the dean, see GLlGt poem 9. Llywelyn was under the impression that a letter given to him by Rhisiart gave him permission to gather lambs on Anglesey, whereas in fact it contained an order to Huw Lewys of Prysaeddfed, who eventually opened the letter, to incarcerate Llywelyn for stealing lambs!
40Caru dynion côr Deiniel:
Organ bêr,18 ⁠organ bêr A reference to the organ pipes in line 44. Cf. Dafydd ap Gwilym’s description of the church in Bangor in his poem of praise for Hywel ap Goronwy, dean of Bangor, DG.net 8.11 Tŷ geirwgalch teg ei organ ‘a foam-coloured whitewashed house with a fine organ’. In his second debate poem with Dafydd ap Gwilym, Gruffudd Gryg referred to the same organ as one of three things that, like Dafydd’s muse, were once considered innovative, see ibid. 25.35–40 Ail yw’r organ ym Mangor, / Rhai a’i cân er rhuo côr. / Y flwyddyn, erlyn oerlef, / Daith oer drud, y doeth i’r dref, / Pawb o’i goffr a rôi offrwm / O’r plwyf, er a ganai’r plwm ‘The second is the organ at Bangor, some play it to make the choir roar. The year, to follow a woeful sound, pointless sad journey, it came to the town, everyone from the parish would give an offering from their coffers because of the noise made by the leads’. Further, see ibid. 25.35n; GSDT 14.41n. cân offeren,
Clych19 ⁠clych Bishop Skevington’s will contains instructions to place four bells (three that he had already bought and one more in addition) ‘[in] the Steeple and Lofte of Bangor Churche where the Bells doo hange’, which suggests that Syr Dafydd Trefor is here referring to bells that were there already, see the introductory note and Willis 1721: 246. Bangor, ail Winsor⁠20 ⁠Winsor Windsor castle in Berkshire and, more specifically, the castle’s grand chapel that was dedicated to St George and renovated extensively at roughly the same time as the renovation work at Bangor. wen,
Cantorion gwchion ar gân,
Pob irgainc pibau organ.
45Tomas21 ⁠Tomas The Bishop Thomas Skevington, see DNB Online s.n. Thomas Skevington. ddulas a ddilid
Eidionnau Duw dan ei did;
Canu a wnân’ acw ’n ei ôl
Osber,22 ⁠gosber See GPC Ar Lein s.v. ‘vespers, evening prayer’. adar ysbrydol.23 Ll. 45–8. The Bishop Skevington is depicted walking behind the clerics of the church in Bangor as if he were a ploughman following oxen who were dan ei did (‘under his authority’ or literally ‘under his harness’). The rural imagery is continued as the poet describes the clerics as adar ysbrydol ‘pious birds’ as they echo the bishop in prayer. Cf. the story of Deiniol ploughing with oxen, ll. 23‒8n.
Apla’ sens, palis a sêl,
50Apla’ dynion plwy’ Deiniel,
A’u heglwys, baradwys ei bro, 11 ⁠A’u heglwys, baradwys ei bro An eight syllable line that could be shortened either by omitting the pronoun or using the abbreviated form b’radwys, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor often varied the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.
Mae Tomas i’w mintimio.24 ⁠mintimio This word is not noted as a form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. maentumiaf, but cf. mintim.
Ni bu am waith, ni’i beiwn, 12 ⁠ni’i beiwn It is likely that ’i is implied in the manuscript reading, ni beiwn, although it was not unusual for words beginning with b- to retain their original form after ni, see TC 357.
Ysgafn tâl Ysgefintẃn;25 ⁠Ysgefintẃn A Welsh form of the name of the bishop, who was born at Skeffington in Leicestershire, see l. 45n. 13 ⁠Ysgefintẃn It seems that the letter -i- was added later in the manuscript reading, ysgefinitwn, and that the scribe had forgotten to delete the second -i-. It is emended in line with the recognized form of the bishop’s name.
55Costiodd aur, lonaid cist dda,
Gist Domas, fu’r gost yma. 14 ⁠Gist Domas, fu’r gost yma The edition interprets the ambiguous orthography of the manuscript reading, gisd tomas fvr gosd tyma.
Seiri a bwyd sy ar y bar,26 ⁠ar y bar On the meaning, see the textual note on this line. 15 ⁠Seiri a bwyd sy ar y bar The edition follows the manuscript reading. It was emended in GSDT 14.57 Seiri a bwyd sy ar bâr, see the combination ar bâr ‘prepared’ in GPC Ar Lein s.v. pâr4, cf. also pâr1 ‘together, in a team (of oxen), in pairs.’ Cf. the same emendment, to all purposes, in LlGC 644B Seyri a bwyd sydd ar bar, possibly because the scribe thought that this was an eight syllable line, but note that there are many examples of eight syllable lines in this poem and, furthermore, this may well be a seven syllable line, with seiri a contracting into two syllables. But the change may have occurred due to uncertainty about the meaning of ar y bar in this context, see the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. bar1 ‘in judgement, at the bar, also fig.’ It is tentatively suggested here that y bar is a description of the church in Bangor as a place of divine judgement, or even of the scaffold used during the building work there.
A llaw esgob ’wllysgar,
Bwâu uchel a’u breichiau 16 ⁠Bwâu uchel a’u breichiau The r is ignored in this consonantal cynghanedd. The reading in LlGC 3048D bwav uchel ai beichiav is probably an informed attempt to rectify this. Although beichiau ‘loads’ is meaningful, it seems that breichiau ‘arms’ fits better with the rest of the couplet. That is, the uppermost parts of the wooden beams interlocked like arms in the form of arches in the roof of the church. For other examples of ignoring consonants in lines of consonantal cynghanedd in this poem, see ll. 36, 52, 64, 70.
60O’r coed ar eu brigau’n cau 17 ⁠brigau’n cau This line contains the last of four additions made by the scribe, namely brigav yn kav. Following the fact that the addition in line 25 (see the note) is clearly correct, the edition also follows this emendment, even though there seems to be nothing wrong with the original reading. See also ll. 10n, 54n.,
A simwr hon, os mawr hi,
A glyw drwst y glaw drosti,
Cist drom yr Arglwydd Domas
Yn rhoi cap plwm rhag glaw i’r plas.27 ⁠Yn rhoi cap plwm rhag glaw i’r plas The consonantal cynghanedd in this line is faulty, cf. l. 36n; GSDT 24–5. It seems that the poet is referring to Bishop Skevington’s building work at the bishop’s palace in Bangor, see the introductory note.
65Da’i cad yn adeiliadwr,
Daed yw’r gwaith, da Duw i’r gŵr!
Ystod fawr yw ei stad fo,
Ei oes, Deiniel a’i ystynno 18 ⁠Ei oes, Deiniel a’i ystynno An eight syllable line, in which a’i hystynno is expected, as there are very few examples of omitting h- following a feminine pronoun, see TC 154. Its absence may suggest that the word should be abbreviated, a’i ’stynno, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor had a tendency to vary the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.
Nes cael ar fawr afael fry
70Clych i uchder y clochdy.
Oed Duw gwyn yt i’w gynnal
Pan 19 ⁠Pan The form pen is used in ll. 8 and 31. A different form may have been used in this line under the influence of pen in the second half of the line. roi y pen ar y wal
Pymthecant, gwarant dan go’,
Hugain gyda saith hygo’.28 Ll. 71–4. The main part of this long sentence is Oed Duw gwyn yt … / … / Pymthecant … / Hugain gyda saith hygo’ ‘For you may the year of our holy Lord fifteen hundred twenty with seven be well remembered’. That is, Syr Dafydd Trefor wishes that the renovation work at Bangor will be completed in the year he composed the poem, namely 1527, and that the occasion will be commemorated, possibly by recording the year formally on the wall, which is what happened when the work was eventually finished in 1532, see the introductory note. On Oed Duw ‘year of our Lord’ (literally ‘God’s age’), see the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. oed.

There’s a treasure in Bangor
that will remain mightily blessed,
and one of the seven holy cousins1 ⁠un o’r saith gefnder gwyn See Saith Gefnder Sant.
(they were the seven most pious saints):
5Deiniol,2 ⁠Deiniel For other forms of his name, see G 296 s.v. Danyel2. he did not commit adultery,
he insisted that no one do so.3 Ll. 5–6. There is nothing in the Latin lectiones that associates Deiniol with this instruction to reject adultery. The poet may have included it because of the cynghanedd, or possibly because Deiniol had lived as a hermit in his youth (see ll. 7‒8n).
He was a hermit in a hermit’s cell
when on Pembroke’s headland on high.4 Ll. 7–8. This story is fleshed out in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 9‒10 ‘So blessed Daniel … when he was of full age, having left his parents and his native region, desiring to lead the hermit and solitary life … came to a certain mountain, which is now named “Daniel’s Mount,” near Pembroke in the diocese of Mynyw; considering that that place, because it was remote from the tumult of men, was serviceable and suitable for gathering the fruits of divine co[n]templation, he determined to stay … on that same mountain serving his Lord.’ Deiniol was welcomed by the lord of the place and was given land, on which he built a hut where today, state the lectiones, stands a great church dedicated to him. It is then noted that Deiniol lived ‘on a mountain on the southern side of Pembroke.’ A church dedicated to Deiniol is located on St Daniel’s Hill (Mynydd Deiniol) not far south of Pembroke, see Harris 1955: 17–19; Lloyd et al. 2004: 384; LBS ii 330; WATU 194. It seems that [b]raich Penfro⁠ (literally ‘arm of Pembroke’) is a specific reference to the southern headland of Pembrokeshire, see ibid. 309 (map).
God Jesus appointed him father
10to a host, so good was his manner,
and at that time our good father
knew not the wealth of the Latin language;5 Ll. 9–12. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 10‒11, ‘In process of time, the cathedral of Bangor being vacant by the death of its bishop, those to whom in the said church the election or provision of a bishop pertained having met together, and the grace of the Holy Spirit having been invoked, it was divinely revealed that they should send at once to the Pembroke district, and should choose as bishop and pastor for their church a certain hermit, dwelling on a mountain … and it was added that he was called Daniel.’ Deiniol was greatly surprised when the messengers stated their purpose: ‘“How can this be, that you claim that I am chosen as bishop, when I am almost wholly unlearned, nor have I any knowledge of letters?” They answered him and said, “It is God’s will that so it should be.”’
he didn’t know a rag from his cope
until he was invested as a bishop.6 Ll. 13–14. According to the Latin lectiones, Deiniol did not become bishop until after he had received ecclesiastical learning from God, see ll. 15‒18n; Harris 1955: 11‒12. The Book of Llandaff states that Deiniol was ordained by Dyfrig, but a later note on the side of the page states that he was ordained by Teilo, for Teilo (like Deiniol, see ll. 29‒34n) was associated with Penalun in Pembrokeshire, see LL 71, 337; WCD 191, 607. According to the first line of the couplet, when he came to Bangor Deiniol was so unassuming that he did not know the difference between a simple rag and a cleric’s cope (another similar interpretation is possible, ‘he didn’t know one thread of his cope’).
15He intoned the hymn7 ⁠dŵad canu The verb dŵad is a form of dywawd, the third singular past form of dywedyd ‘to say’, see G 431. The object of the verb, canu, is unmutated, see TC 223. of Te Deum8 ⁠Ti Dëwm The first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘Oh God, we praise you’, see ODCC 1592–3. For a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM. Ti may reflect Middle English pronounciation, following the gradual change from long e to i in the great vowel shift.
for Christ’s fortresses and the crooked Man9 ⁠[y] Gŵr crwm It is suggested in GSDT 14.16n that this is a reference to the Christ of Mostyn, a 15c. wooden image of Christ sitting in meditation before the crucifixion, see Lord 2003: 163 for a picture and short discussion. However, Lord notes that although the image is now kept at the church in Bangor, it may well have come originally from Llanrwst, ‘presumably from Maenan abbey’, and it is unclear whether it was at Bangor when Syr Dafydd Trefor composed his poem in 1527. Furthermore, Christ is depicted in a rather straight-backed position, and it is therefore likely that the poet was in fact referring to a different image. As in most 16c. churches, there was doubtless a large rood in the church at Bangor that may have depicted Christ’s crooked body. Another possibility is that Syr Dafydd Trefor was referring to a 14c. or 15c. stone carving of Christ at the church, in which he is depicted on the cross with his head to one side and his legs bent in a ‘crooked’ pose, see ibid. 174 for a picture. A different reading is possible, namely ar gwr crwm, that is ‘Christ on a crooked corner’, as an obscure description of the crucifixion..
A speechless man obtained Latin grammar,
God’s shepherd bearing a fair crozier.10 Ll. 15–18. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 11, ‘Then the clergy of that church, accompanying the same Daniel to the high altar of the church and singing most devoutly Te Deum laudamus, praised the mercy of the Saviour. And when St. Daniel arose from his prayer, he was so filled with ecclesiastical knowledge of all learning that no one in Wales was then seen like to him in knowledge and culture.’ It is not explicitly stated, as Syr Dafydd Trefor does in lines 15‒16, that Deiniol himself sang the Latin hymn.

Men’s talk of St Deiniol
20is like balsam or the taste of honey.
This man’s miracles before my time,11 Ll. 21–2. The same statement, to all purposes, is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘it would take too long to relate the miracles which the Lord vouchsafed to work through his merits, both while he lived and after his departure, for they were very many.’ If -n in the second half of the line is counted in this consonantal cynghanedd, the break in the line must fall after yn (on placing a main stress on minor words, see CD 266‒8).
when named, are very numerous:
a co-tiller’s tame oxen,
thieves took them from the water,
25Deiniol placed stags in the yoke
in place of the oxen,
causing the brindle-haired thieves
to lie yonder like stones;12 Ll. 23–8. This miracle is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘On a certain night, while [Deiniol] was dwelling on the mountain of Pembroke, two evilly-disposed men came thither to steal the oxen which had been lent to the holy man for ploughing his land … The holy man, however, hearing from his lodging the noise of men and animals, saw through a window the thieves leading away the oxen, and, going out, he cried, “Wait, wait a little, in the name of the Lord[.]” But they, when they heard his voice, ran the faster, and St. Daniel, having made the sign of the cross towards the oxen, lest he who had provided them should suffer loss through his praiseworthy act, straightway the thieves were turned in to two stones on the very spot, like unto men standing, unto this day. But the animals were tuned back to their accustomed pastures.’ For other references in the poetry to saints turning thieves into stone, see IlltudLM ll. 85–6; MWPSS 1.43–4. Although Syr Dafydd Trefor’s description corresponds closely to the lectiones, he also refers to the colour of the thieves’ hair and to the fact that Deiniol had placed the yoke on stags instead of the oxen. In the lectiones, the yoking of the stags is treated as a separate miracle that follows the one above, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘Another time, however, when the holy man could not find animals with which to plough his land, behold there came forth from the wood of Pencoed, which was close by, two great stags to the place where the land needing to be ploughed was situate, and, bending their necks to the yoke, they drew the plough all day like tame beasts, and, when the day’s work was done, they returned to the aforesaid wood.’ For other examples of this widely repeated miracle, see WSSPL 81–3.
and a girl, after her belly had become swollen
30with evil, deadly poison,
by the saint’s grace, when she placed
water from his well in her mouth,
she spat out from her body
countless cold, teeming maggots.13 Ll. 29–34. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 13, ‘a certain woman from the district of Caerwy, in the diocese of Mynyw, was so swollen beyond measure that she could find no relief by any advice of physicians. At last, coming to the church of St. Daniel, and afterwards to the aforesaid well, and imploring the saint’s help she drank of that water so as to regain health and, before leaving, came to the entrance of the church, and cast forth from her mouth, while many stood by and observed, three horrible worms, each with four feet, and the woman was made whole from that very hour.’ The only difference between the lectiones and Syr Dafydd Trefor’s poem is that the first mentions only three insects while the second refers to thousands. It seems that the woman lived near Carew in Pembrokeshire, not far from Deiniol’s church near Pembroke and a well associated with the saint at Penalun near Tenby, see Harris 1955: 19; LBS ii 330; Lloyd et al. 2004: 354. On Deiniol’s association with Pembrokeshire in his youth, see ll. 7‒8n. According to the Latin life of Cadog, this saint’s well could also heal similar ailments, see VSB 94–5.
35Let us all exclaim, for fear of our foe,14 ⁠Galwn, bawb, rhag ein gelyn There is a proest rhyme in this consonantal cynghanedd but, like many other 15c. poets, Syr Dafydd Trefor probably did not consider it a fault, see CD 255–7.
‘St Deiniol, [give] us your grace!’15 ⁠Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn Faulty cynghanedd. Further, see the textual note on this line.

Raising his stair,16 ⁠codi’i ris The poet may be referring literally to the work of raising a set of stairs as part of the building work at the church in Bangor, or figuratively to the process of raising the status of the church. Jesus’s cathedral,
roofing the great church, it used to be grassland.
My role by way of a sealed letter17 ⁠swydd dan lythyr a sêl Syr Dafydd Trefor was commissioned formally by the church officials, if not the bishop himself, to compose this poem. Cf. the llythr caead ‘sealed letter’ that Rhisiart Cyffin, dean of Bangor, gave to the poet-harpist Llywelyn ap Gutun, under rather different circumstances, according to one of Llywelyn’s scornful poems to the dean, see GLlGt poem 9. Llywelyn was under the impression that a letter given to him by Rhisiart gave him permission to gather lambs on Anglesey, whereas in fact it contained an order to Huw Lewys of Prysaeddfed, who eventually opened the letter, to incarcerate Llywelyn for stealing lambs!
40is to love the men of Deiniol’s chancel:
a sweet-sounding organ,18 ⁠organ bêr A reference to the organ pipes in line 44. Cf. Dafydd ap Gwilym’s description of the church in Bangor in his poem of praise for Hywel ap Goronwy, dean of Bangor, DG.net 8.11 Tŷ geirwgalch teg ei organ ‘a foam-coloured whitewashed house with a fine organ’. In his second debate poem with Dafydd ap Gwilym, Gruffudd Gryg referred to the same organ as one of three things that, like Dafydd’s muse, were once considered innovative, see ibid. 25.35–40 Ail yw’r organ ym Mangor, / Rhai a’i cân er rhuo côr. / Y flwyddyn, erlyn oerlef, / Daith oer drud, y doeth i’r dref, / Pawb o’i goffr a rôi offrwm / O’r plwyf, er a ganai’r plwm ‘The second is the organ at Bangor, some play it to make the choir roar. The year, to follow a woeful sound, pointless sad journey, it came to the town, everyone from the parish would give an offering from their coffers because of the noise made by the leads’. Further, see ibid. 25.35n; GSDT 14.41n. the song of mass,
the bells19 ⁠clych Bishop Skevington’s will contains instructions to place four bells (three that he had already bought and one more in addition) ‘[in] the Steeple and Lofte of Bangor Churche where the Bells doo hange’, which suggests that Syr Dafydd Trefor is here referring to bells that were there already, see the introductory note and Willis 1721: 246. of Bangor, a second holy Windsor,20 ⁠Winsor Windsor castle in Berkshire and, more specifically, the castle’s grand chapel that was dedicated to St George and renovated extensively at roughly the same time as the renovation work at Bangor.
fine singers of verse,
all the lively tunes of an organ’s pipes.
45Thomas21 ⁠Tomas The Bishop Thomas Skevington, see DNB Online s.n. Thomas Skevington. in purple follows
God’s oxen who are under his authority;
pious birds, they sing vespers22 ⁠gosber See GPC Ar Lein s.v. ‘vespers, evening prayer’.
yonder after him.23 Ll. 45–8. The Bishop Skevington is depicted walking behind the clerics of the church in Bangor as if he were a ploughman following oxen who were dan ei did (‘under his authority’ or literally ‘under his harness’). The rural imagery is continued as the poet describes the clerics as adar ysbrydol ‘pious birds’ as they echo the bishop in prayer. Cf. the story of Deiniol ploughing with oxen, ll. 23‒8n.
The most powerful incense, palisade and seal,
50Deiniol’s parishioners are the ablest men,
and their church, its region’s paradise,
Thomas maintains it.24 ⁠mintimio This word is not noted as a form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. maentumiaf, but cf. mintim.
Skevington’s25 ⁠Ysgefintẃn A Welsh form of the name of the bishop, who was born at Skeffington in Leicestershire, see l. 45n. expenditure for work
wasn’t meagre, we don’t find fault with him;
55he spent gold, a good chestful
was the expense here, Thomas’s chest.
There are carpenters and food in the place of judgement,26 ⁠ar y bar On the meaning, see the textual note on this line.
and a bishop’s ready hand,
lofty arches with arms from the forest
60that interlink in their topmost branches,
and this church’s mantle, if it’s big [enough],
hears over it the clatter of rain,
lord Thomas’s heavy chest
placing on the palace a cap of lead against the rain.27 ⁠Yn rhoi cap plwm rhag glaw i’r plas The consonantal cynghanedd in this line is faulty, cf. l. 36n; GSDT 24–5. It seems that the poet is referring to Bishop Skevington’s building work at the bishop’s palace in Bangor, see the introductory note.
65It was good to have him as an architect,
so good is the work, God’s goodness to the man!
His position is of long standing,
his life, may Deiniol extend it
until there are bells on a large cruck
70in the heights of the belfry.
To maintain it, when you place the top on the wall,
for you may the year of our holy Lord
fifteen hundred, certain assurance,
twenty with seven be well remembered.28 Ll. 71–4. The main part of this long sentence is Oed Duw gwyn yt … / … / Pymthecant … / Hugain gyda saith hygo’ ‘For you may the year of our holy Lord fifteen hundred twenty with seven be well remembered’. That is, Syr Dafydd Trefor wishes that the renovation work at Bangor will be completed in the year he composed the poem, namely 1527, and that the occasion will be commemorated, possibly by recording the year formally on the wall, which is what happened when the work was eventually finished in 1532, see the introductory note. On Oed Duw ‘year of our Lord’ (literally ‘God’s age’), see the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. oed.

1 ⁠un o’r saith gefnder gwyn See Saith Gefnder Sant.

2 ⁠Deiniel For other forms of his name, see G 296 s.v. Danyel2.

3 Ll. 5–6. There is nothing in the Latin lectiones that associates Deiniol with this instruction to reject adultery. The poet may have included it because of the cynghanedd, or possibly because Deiniol had lived as a hermit in his youth (see ll. 7‒8n).

4 Ll. 7–8. This story is fleshed out in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 9‒10 ‘So blessed Daniel … when he was of full age, having left his parents and his native region, desiring to lead the hermit and solitary life … came to a certain mountain, which is now named “Daniel’s Mount,” near Pembroke in the diocese of Mynyw; considering that that place, because it was remote from the tumult of men, was serviceable and suitable for gathering the fruits of divine co[n]templation, he determined to stay … on that same mountain serving his Lord.’ Deiniol was welcomed by the lord of the place and was given land, on which he built a hut where today, state the lectiones, stands a great church dedicated to him. It is then noted that Deiniol lived ‘on a mountain on the southern side of Pembroke.’ A church dedicated to Deiniol is located on St Daniel’s Hill (Mynydd Deiniol) not far south of Pembroke, see Harris 1955: 17–19; Lloyd et al. 2004: 384; LBS ii 330; WATU 194. It seems that [b]raich Penfro⁠ (literally ‘arm of Pembroke’) is a specific reference to the southern headland of Pembrokeshire, see ibid. 309 (map).

5 Ll. 9–12. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 10‒11, ‘In process of time, the cathedral of Bangor being vacant by the death of its bishop, those to whom in the said church the election or provision of a bishop pertained having met together, and the grace of the Holy Spirit having been invoked, it was divinely revealed that they should send at once to the Pembroke district, and should choose as bishop and pastor for their church a certain hermit, dwelling on a mountain … and it was added that he was called Daniel.’ Deiniol was greatly surprised when the messengers stated their purpose: ‘“How can this be, that you claim that I am chosen as bishop, when I am almost wholly unlearned, nor have I any knowledge of letters?” They answered him and said, “It is God’s will that so it should be.”’

6 Ll. 13–14. According to the Latin lectiones, Deiniol did not become bishop until after he had received ecclesiastical learning from God, see ll. 15‒18n; Harris 1955: 11‒12. The Book of Llandaff states that Deiniol was ordained by Dyfrig, but a later note on the side of the page states that he was ordained by Teilo, for Teilo (like Deiniol, see ll. 29‒34n) was associated with Penalun in Pembrokeshire, see LL 71, 337; WCD 191, 607. According to the first line of the couplet, when he came to Bangor Deiniol was so unassuming that he did not know the difference between a simple rag and a cleric’s cope (another similar interpretation is possible, ‘he didn’t know one thread of his cope’).

7 ⁠dŵad canu The verb dŵad is a form of dywawd, the third singular past form of dywedyd ‘to say’, see G 431. The object of the verb, canu, is unmutated, see TC 223.

8 ⁠Ti Dëwm The first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘Oh God, we praise you’, see ODCC 1592–3. For a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM. Ti may reflect Middle English pronounciation, following the gradual change from long e to i in the great vowel shift.

9 ⁠[y] Gŵr crwm It is suggested in GSDT 14.16n that this is a reference to the Christ of Mostyn, a 15c. wooden image of Christ sitting in meditation before the crucifixion, see Lord 2003: 163 for a picture and short discussion. However, Lord notes that although the image is now kept at the church in Bangor, it may well have come originally from Llanrwst, ‘presumably from Maenan abbey’, and it is unclear whether it was at Bangor when Syr Dafydd Trefor composed his poem in 1527. Furthermore, Christ is depicted in a rather straight-backed position, and it is therefore likely that the poet was in fact referring to a different image. As in most 16c. churches, there was doubtless a large rood in the church at Bangor that may have depicted Christ’s crooked body. Another possibility is that Syr Dafydd Trefor was referring to a 14c. or 15c. stone carving of Christ at the church, in which he is depicted on the cross with his head to one side and his legs bent in a ‘crooked’ pose, see ibid. 174 for a picture. A different reading is possible, namely ar gwr crwm, that is ‘Christ on a crooked corner’, as an obscure description of the crucifixion.

10 Ll. 15–18. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 11, ‘Then the clergy of that church, accompanying the same Daniel to the high altar of the church and singing most devoutly Te Deum laudamus, praised the mercy of the Saviour. And when St. Daniel arose from his prayer, he was so filled with ecclesiastical knowledge of all learning that no one in Wales was then seen like to him in knowledge and culture.’ It is not explicitly stated, as Syr Dafydd Trefor does in lines 15‒16, that Deiniol himself sang the Latin hymn.

11 Ll. 21–2. The same statement, to all purposes, is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘it would take too long to relate the miracles which the Lord vouchsafed to work through his merits, both while he lived and after his departure, for they were very many.’ If -n in the second half of the line is counted in this consonantal cynghanedd, the break in the line must fall after yn (on placing a main stress on minor words, see CD 266‒8).

12 Ll. 23–8. This miracle is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘On a certain night, while [Deiniol] was dwelling on the mountain of Pembroke, two evilly-disposed men came thither to steal the oxen which had been lent to the holy man for ploughing his land … The holy man, however, hearing from his lodging the noise of men and animals, saw through a window the thieves leading away the oxen, and, going out, he cried, “Wait, wait a little, in the name of the Lord[.]” But they, when they heard his voice, ran the faster, and St. Daniel, having made the sign of the cross towards the oxen, lest he who had provided them should suffer loss through his praiseworthy act, straightway the thieves were turned in to two stones on the very spot, like unto men standing, unto this day. But the animals were tuned back to their accustomed pastures.’ For other references in the poetry to saints turning thieves into stone, see IlltudLM ll. 85–6; MWPSS 1.43–4. Although Syr Dafydd Trefor’s description corresponds closely to the lectiones, he also refers to the colour of the thieves’ hair and to the fact that Deiniol had placed the yoke on stags instead of the oxen. In the lectiones, the yoking of the stags is treated as a separate miracle that follows the one above, see Harris 1955: 12, ‘Another time, however, when the holy man could not find animals with which to plough his land, behold there came forth from the wood of Pencoed, which was close by, two great stags to the place where the land needing to be ploughed was situate, and, bending their necks to the yoke, they drew the plough all day like tame beasts, and, when the day’s work was done, they returned to the aforesaid wood.’ For other examples of this widely repeated miracle, see WSSPL 81–3.

13 Ll. 29–34. This story is found in the Latin lectiones, see Harris 1955: 13, ‘a certain woman from the district of Caerwy, in the diocese of Mynyw, was so swollen beyond measure that she could find no relief by any advice of physicians. At last, coming to the church of St. Daniel, and afterwards to the aforesaid well, and imploring the saint’s help she drank of that water so as to regain health and, before leaving, came to the entrance of the church, and cast forth from her mouth, while many stood by and observed, three horrible worms, each with four feet, and the woman was made whole from that very hour.’ The only difference between the lectiones and Syr Dafydd Trefor’s poem is that the first mentions only three insects while the second refers to thousands. It seems that the woman lived near Carew in Pembrokeshire, not far from Deiniol’s church near Pembroke and a well associated with the saint at Penalun near Tenby, see Harris 1955: 19; LBS ii 330; Lloyd et al. 2004: 354. On Deiniol’s association with Pembrokeshire in his youth, see ll. 7‒8n. According to the Latin life of Cadog, this saint’s well could also heal similar ailments, see VSB 94–5.

14 ⁠Galwn, bawb, rhag ein gelyn There is a proest rhyme in this consonantal cynghanedd but, like many other 15c. poets, Syr Dafydd Trefor probably did not consider it a fault, see CD 255–7.

15 ⁠Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn Faulty cynghanedd. Further, see the textual note on this line.

16 ⁠codi’i ris The poet may be referring literally to the work of raising a set of stairs as part of the building work at the church in Bangor, or figuratively to the process of raising the status of the church.

17 ⁠swydd dan lythyr a sêl Syr Dafydd Trefor was commissioned formally by the church officials, if not the bishop himself, to compose this poem. Cf. the llythr caead ‘sealed letter’ that Rhisiart Cyffin, dean of Bangor, gave to the poet-harpist Llywelyn ap Gutun, under rather different circumstances, according to one of Llywelyn’s scornful poems to the dean, see GLlGt poem 9. Llywelyn was under the impression that a letter given to him by Rhisiart gave him permission to gather lambs on Anglesey, whereas in fact it contained an order to Huw Lewys of Prysaeddfed, who eventually opened the letter, to incarcerate Llywelyn for stealing lambs!

18 ⁠organ bêr A reference to the organ pipes in line 44. Cf. Dafydd ap Gwilym’s description of the church in Bangor in his poem of praise for Hywel ap Goronwy, dean of Bangor, DG.net 8.11 Tŷ geirwgalch teg ei organ ‘a foam-coloured whitewashed house with a fine organ’. In his second debate poem with Dafydd ap Gwilym, Gruffudd Gryg referred to the same organ as one of three things that, like Dafydd’s muse, were once considered innovative, see ibid. 25.35–40 Ail yw’r organ ym Mangor, / Rhai a’i cân er rhuo côr. / Y flwyddyn, erlyn oerlef, / Daith oer drud, y doeth i’r dref, / Pawb o’i goffr a rôi offrwm / O’r plwyf, er a ganai’r plwm ‘The second is the organ at Bangor, some play it to make the choir roar. The year, to follow a woeful sound, pointless sad journey, it came to the town, everyone from the parish would give an offering from their coffers because of the noise made by the leads’. Further, see ibid. 25.35n; GSDT 14.41n.

19 ⁠clych Bishop Skevington’s will contains instructions to place four bells (three that he had already bought and one more in addition) ‘[in] the Steeple and Lofte of Bangor Churche where the Bells doo hange’, which suggests that Syr Dafydd Trefor is here referring to bells that were there already, see the introductory note and Willis 1721: 246.

20 ⁠Winsor Windsor castle in Berkshire and, more specifically, the castle’s grand chapel that was dedicated to St George and renovated extensively at roughly the same time as the renovation work at Bangor.

21 ⁠Tomas The Bishop Thomas Skevington, see DNB Online s.n. Thomas Skevington.

22 ⁠gosber See GPC Ar Lein s.v. ‘vespers, evening prayer’.

23 Ll. 45–8. The Bishop Skevington is depicted walking behind the clerics of the church in Bangor as if he were a ploughman following oxen who were dan ei did (‘under his authority’ or literally ‘under his harness’). The rural imagery is continued as the poet describes the clerics as adar ysbrydol ‘pious birds’ as they echo the bishop in prayer. Cf. the story of Deiniol ploughing with oxen, ll. 23‒8n.

24 ⁠mintimio This word is not noted as a form in GPC Ar Lein s.v. maentumiaf, but cf. mintim.

25 ⁠Ysgefintẃn A Welsh form of the name of the bishop, who was born at Skeffington in Leicestershire, see l. 45n.

26 ⁠ar y bar On the meaning, see the textual note on this line.

27 ⁠Yn rhoi cap plwm rhag glaw i’r plas The consonantal cynghanedd in this line is faulty, cf. l. 36n; GSDT 24–5. It seems that the poet is referring to Bishop Skevington’s building work at the bishop’s palace in Bangor, see the introductory note.

28 Ll. 71–4. The main part of this long sentence is Oed Duw gwyn yt … / … / Pymthecant … / Hugain gyda saith hygo’ ‘For you may the year of our holy Lord fifteen hundred twenty with seven be well remembered’. That is, Syr Dafydd Trefor wishes that the renovation work at Bangor will be completed in the year he composed the poem, namely 1527, and that the occasion will be commemorated, possibly by recording the year formally on the wall, which is what happened when the work was eventually finished in 1532, see the introductory note. On Oed Duw ‘year of our Lord’ (literally ‘God’s age’), see the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. oed.

1 ⁠Fo fynnai na wnâi neb A six syllable line. The scribe may have intended to write the disyllabic form gwnaai, but it would be surprising to find this rare form, found only in the work of some 14c. poets, in a poem composed during the first half of the 16c., see GGMD iii 8.12; GLlBH 5.6; G 695. Following LlGC 3048D fo fynnai na wnelai neb, wnâi may be a mistake for wnelai, but this is more than likely an informed attempt to lengthen the line. Another possibility is that this l. originally had Efo at the beginning, but note that l. 36 is also a six syllable line in every source, and cf. l. 21n (explanatory).

2 ⁠meudwydy The manuscript reading, medwydy, is emended. The same error is found in LlGC 3048D.

3 ⁠daed ei fodd The i between these two words in the manuscript reading, daedifodd, may be a later addition. The scribe may have thought initially that daed was disyllabic (däed), before noticing that his source also contained a pronoun, cf. Guto’r Glyn’s use of daed in both monosyllabic and disyllabic forms, GG.net 60.11–12 Bôn derwen benadurwaed, / Bwclai o Stanlai, nos daed, 47.59 Odid fyth, er däed fo. Note also that daed is monosyllabic, in all likelihood, in l. 66 of this poem. Furthermore, nouns do not mutate after an equative form. This may have been the first of four additions that the scribe made to his text, all of which are followed in this edition in view of the fact that the addition in l. 25 (see the note) is clearly genuine, see also ll. 54n, 60n.

4 ⁠Ni adwaenai garrai o’i gob An eight syllable line that could be shortened by contracting ni a- into a diphthong or by abbreviating ni ’dwaenai, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor had a tendency to vary the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.

5 ⁠mud The manuscript reading, mvl, is emended for the cynghanedd.

6 ⁠Bugail Duw’n dwyn bagal deg The edition follows the manuscript reading for bagal, which may be a dialectal form, and emends dvw yn to shorten the length of the line, but Duw yn dwyn bagl deg is also possible.

7 ⁠Aml iawn yn fy mlaen i A six syllable line, but aml may have been disyllabic here, as suggested by the manuscript reading, amyl.

8 ⁠lle This word, without which the line is meaningless, was added later by the scribe.

9 ⁠A roes y ceirw i’r iau To ensure a seven syllable line, ceirw must be disyllabic. However, it is monosyllabic in LlGC 3048D a roes y ceirw yn yr iav. It is possible that yn was lost from the text in C 2.114 (cf. l. 25n lle) but, in light of ll. 6n and 59n, it is more than likely an addition. On Syr Dafydd Trefor’s irregular use of words ending with -w as both syllabic and non-syllabic, see GSDT 24–5.

10 ⁠Deiniel Sant, dy ras ynn A six syllable line with an irregular cynghanedd. The source may have been defective. However, there are many other similar examples in the work of Syr Dafydd Trefor, see GSDT 24–5.

11 ⁠A’u heglwys, baradwys ei bro An eight syllable line that could be shortened either by omitting the pronoun or using the abbreviated form b’radwys, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor often varied the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.

12 ⁠ni’i beiwn It is likely that ’i is implied in the manuscript reading, ni beiwn, although it was not unusual for words beginning with b- to retain their original form after ni, see TC 357.

13 ⁠Ysgefintẃn It seems that the letter -i- was added later in the manuscript reading, ysgefinitwn, and that the scribe had forgotten to delete the second -i-. It is emended in line with the recognized form of the bishop’s name.

14 ⁠Gist Domas, fu’r gost yma The edition interprets the ambiguous orthography of the manuscript reading, gisd tomas fvr gosd tyma.

15 ⁠Seiri a bwyd sy ar y bar The edition follows the manuscript reading. It was emended in GSDT 14.57 Seiri a bwyd sy ar bâr, see the combination ar bâr ‘prepared’ in GPC Ar Lein s.v. pâr4, cf. also pâr1 ‘together, in a team (of oxen), in pairs.’ Cf. the same emendment, to all purposes, in LlGC 644B Seyri a bwyd sydd ar bar, possibly because the scribe thought that this was an eight syllable line, but note that there are many examples of eight syllable lines in this poem and, furthermore, this may well be a seven syllable line, with seiri a contracting into two syllables. But the change may have occurred due to uncertainty about the meaning of ar y bar in this context, see the combination in GPC Ar Lein s.v. bar1 ‘in judgement, at the bar, also fig.’ It is tentatively suggested here that y bar is a description of the church in Bangor as a place of divine judgement, or even of the scaffold used during the building work there.

16 ⁠Bwâu uchel a’u breichiau The r is ignored in this consonantal cynghanedd. The reading in LlGC 3048D bwav uchel ai beichiav is probably an informed attempt to rectify this. Although beichiau ‘loads’ is meaningful, it seems that breichiau ‘arms’ fits better with the rest of the couplet. That is, the uppermost parts of the wooden beams interlocked like arms in the form of arches in the roof of the church. For other examples of ignoring consonants in lines of consonantal cynghanedd in this poem, see ll. 36, 52, 64, 70.

17 ⁠brigau’n cau This line contains the last of four additions made by the scribe, namely brigav yn kav. Following the fact that the addition in line 25 (see the note) is clearly correct, the edition also follows this emendment, even though there seems to be nothing wrong with the original reading. See also ll. 10n, 54n.

18 ⁠Ei oes, Deiniel a’i ystynno An eight syllable line, in which a’i hystynno is expected, as there are very few examples of omitting h- following a feminine pronoun, see TC 154. Its absence may suggest that the word should be abbreviated, a’i ’stynno, but note that Syr Dafydd Trefor had a tendency to vary the length of his lines, see GSDT 25.

19 ⁠Pan The form pen is used in ll. 8 and 31. A different form may have been used in this line under the influence of pen in the second half of the line.