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Translation:

24. Moliant i Bedr o Rosyr (Lewys Daron)

edited by Eurig Salisbury

A poem of praise by Lewys Daron for Peter of Rhosyr on Anglesey. Date c.1495–c.1530.

Am yr un sant mawr yw’n sôn 1 yw’n sôn C 2.114 yw son is possible, with an unanswered n in the first half of the l., and likewise LlGC 3048D yw /r/ sôn, with one r answering two. But the reading in the edition, which is found in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D, fits better. The pronoun may have been absent in the source.
 mwg aur1 mwg aur Literally ‘golden smoke’. For the combination, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. mwg ‘nimbus, halo’. am ei goron.2 coron ‘Crown of the head’ is possible (GPC Ar Lein s.n. coron (c)), but the pope’s threefold crown is more likely.
A ganwyf i, o gwnaf fawl, 2 gwnaf fawl The first -f has vanished under the influence of the second (gwna fawl) in every manuscript.
Hyn â i Bedr hen, wybodawl.3 Bedr … wybodawl The same consonantal cynghanedd appears in Iolo Goch’s poem, ‘The Twelve Apostles and the Judgement’, IGP 27.2 I Bedr ddoeth wybodawl.
5Pab4 pab It was believed that Peter was the first pope who officiated in Rome during the last twenty-five years of his life, see ODCC 1269–70; cf. ll. 49, 53, 60. a edwyn pawb ydwyd,
Parth â’r nef, porthor ynn wyd;
Gorau 3 Gorau Cf. C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D gore, possibly a dialectal form, but it is more likely that the source had gorev, the last letter of which was omitted under the influence of the following word, vn. un gair o’i eni,
Gŵr o stad dan Grist wyt ti.5 Gŵr o stad dan Grist wyt ti The break in this l. falls after dan. On placing the main stress on a preposition and other minor words, see CD 266–8. As for the consonantal cynghanedd in this l., as well as the combination gŵr o stad, cf. GHS 29.19 Gŵr o stad i Grist ydoedd ‘he was a man of substance for Christ’.

Y rhodwyr oedd 4 oedd Contrast C 2.114 draw, which makes the cynghanedd incorrect. a’r 5 a’r The definite article is absent in LlGC 3048D, in all likelihood under the influence of -r at the beginning of the next word, rhai, while the conjunction a is absent in C 4.110 y. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 21248D. The use of the definite article at the beginning of the l. strongly suggests that it was used here too. rhai drwg
10Iso’n 6 Iso’n C 2.114 isso yn probably reflects best the original reading in the source, and the necessary use of the apostrophe is seen in LlGC 21248D iso /n/. These readings probably lie behind the incorrect readings in C 4.110 Sôn yn and LlGC 3048D ison yn. dal Iesu ’n d’olwg.
Cyfa lân6 cyfa lân A combination, in all likelihood, cf. cyfa gwbl ‘altogether complete or entire’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. cyfan gwbl. yn cyflowni
’Wyllys 7 ’Wyllys The source probably had ywyllys, cf. C 2.114 y wyllys and LlGC 3048D ywyllys, both of which have eight syllable lines. The original reading was likely cut short in LlGC 21248D wllys, which is not noted as a variant form of ewyllys in GPC Ar Lein. The poet probably used the abbreviated form ’wyllys. Only in C 4.110 Ewyllys is the a in the second half of the l. omitted in order to shorten it. Duw a ellaist di.
Er gwadu’r Iesu rasol,
Mynd a wnaud, myn Duw, ’n Ei ôl.
15Ofnad 8 Ofnad Note the unnecessary separation in LlGC 21248D ofn nad. at fwriad7 bwriad See GPC Ar Lein s.v. bwriad2 1 (c) ‘conspiracy, treachery’. yt fu
– Ne’ i’th 9 Ne’ i’th The source doubtless had neith, as seen in both C 2.114 (even though the first letter of the word is unclear) and LlGC 3048D. The word neith (a possible re-formation of neithior) appears in GPC Ar Lein s.v. neith1 ‘belief, faith’, and would not be out of place here except for the fact that it first appears in Edward Lhuyd’s Archaeologia Britannica in 1707 and from then on in lexicographical sources only. The edition follows LlGC 21248D ne ith, where the original reading has been separated (even though another word was unnecessarily separated in the preceding l., see l. 15n Ofnad), and it is assumed that both words contract to form one syllable, as the original reading would have suggested, cf. GSDT 4.90 A ne’ i Owain wineuwyn (where ne’ i similarly contracts). C 4.110 I’th is surely a simplification of the source’s difficult reading. hoedl – a wnaeth Ei wadu.8 Ll. 9–16. On Christ’s foretelling of Peter’s threefold denial, and Peter following Christ and the soldiers from a distance, see Matthew 26.31–5, 57–8, 69–75; Mark 14.27–31, 53–4, 66–72; Luke 22.31–4, 54–62; John 13.36–8, 18.15–18, 25–7.
I garchar (difar y doeth)
Herodr9 Herodr An unusual form of the king of Judea’s name, influenced by herodr (see GPC Ar Lein s.v. herod ‘herald at arms’), which is used in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd (-d- becomes voiceless under the influence of h- in hen, see CD 206). hen yr aud drannoeth.
Pedwor o’i gyngor 10 Pedwor o’i gyngor It seems that uncertainty about pedwor, an unusual variant form of pedwar (see GPC Ar Lein s.v.; cf. BeunoRhGE ll.55 Gweles bedwor, cerddor cain), led to emendments in C 4.110 Pedwar i garchar and LlGC 21248D pedwar oi gyfar. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D. a gaid
20Yn dy wely’n dy wyliaid.
Er cau’r drysau ’r diraswyr,10 ’r diraswyr Contraction of o’r diraswyr, where the subject is governed by the preposition o. 11 Er cau’r drysau ’r diraswyr It is likely that this was the reading in the source, which was copied faithfully in LlGC 3048D and emended in C 2.114 er kavr dryssav or dirasswyr. The first definite article was dropped in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D. Contraction of o’r diraswyr is likely to ensure regular l. length and sonorous internal rhyming between cau’r and drysau ’r.
Ni bu ry gall neb o’r gwŷr.
Duw a yrrodd i dorri
Galon y tŵr glân i ti.11 Ll. 23–4. The verb gyrrodd probably has no object, with galon being a plural form of gâl ‘enemy’, namely Herod’s soldiers, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gâl1. They were executed by Herod when it was found that Peter had escaped. Following the poet’s generally negative view of Herod’s prison, tŵr glân seems inconsistent, but it may refer to the fact that Peter escaped from prison miraculously without damaging any doors or walls, see ll. 17–28n. Another possibility is that the object of the verb is [c]alon ‘heart’, namely the angel who released Peter from prison, cf. GG.net 6.27–8 Calon nid aeth, winfaeth wen, / Erioed uwch i Rydychen⁠ ‘No nobler heart ever went to Oxford, white one nurtured on wine’ (for Abbot Rhys of Strata Florida).
25I’th gyrchu (da fu dy fod)
Y dôi angel Duw yngod.
O bur eglur beryglau,
Aeth arwydd Hwn i’th ryddhau.12 Ll. 17–28. On Peter’s incarceration by Herod and rescue by an angel, see Acts 12.1–19. The Bible notes that Herod appointed ‘four squads of four soldiers each’ to guard Peter, but only four are noted in l. 19.

E fu’r Iesu farw isod,
30E godai i fyw gwedi’i fod,
A rhoi ’n ôl Ei farwolaeth
Drws nef 12 Drws nef Both C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D have the definite article before nef, and their lines are therefore eight syllables long. yn dy ras a wnaeth,
Ac i’r un man, Gŵr a’n medd,
Y trôi goriad trugaredd.
35Pennaeth 13 Pennaeth C 2.114 pen aeth (that is, Pan aeth) is also possible, but Pennaeth is more likely. yn llyfodraeth llu,
Porthor trysor tŵr Iesu.13 Ll. 29–36. Cf. Christ’s words to Peter in Matthew 16.18–19: ‘And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven’ (cf. Mark 8.27–30 and Luke 9.18–21).

A geisio pob neges pur,
Aed ar frys i dref Rosyr!
Mewn dy gôr, myn di gweiriaw,14 … Rosyr! / Mewn dy gôr … The meaning could be carried over both couplets (… i dref Rosyr / Mewn dy gôr ‘to the town of Rhosyr into your chancel’), but the first couplet seems more effective on its own.
40Sy Rufain dros sir Fôn draw.
Pob iach ynn, pawb, a’ch enwai,
Pob afiach yn iach a wnai.15 gwnai The second singular present form of the verb gwneuthur (today gwnei), cf. GG.net 25.28. The third singular imperfect form, [g]wnâi, is also possible, but note that Lewys Daron addresses Peter in the second person without exception in this part of the poem.
Dyn gŵyl, ufydd 14 ufydd It is almost certain that this was the reading in the source, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ufudd. It was miscopied in C 4.110 and LlGC 3048D a fydd. dan glefyd
Fai ’n y boen fwya’ ’n y byd,
45Gŵr iach fydd, gyrrwch foddion,
Gweryd fry aur gar dy fron.
O delai 15 O delai Cf. LlGC 3048D od elai. The edition follows the majority reading. i’th gôr dylwyth gwan,
Maent wellwell yn mynd allan.16 Maent wellwell yn mynd allan The -t in maent was likely pronounced as a -d by Lewys Daron when he performed the poem, in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd, cf. maend in the manuscript copies; GG.net 94.12 A’i rent ef i’r un Dafydd.
Pab a rydd pawb ar weddi,
50Paradwys yw d’eglwys di,
A’th gôr ac aur a’th gŵyr gwych,
A’th gareglau a’th groywglych.
Pob enaid, y pab union,
I’r tu de17 i’r tu de These words are interpreted in GLD 28.54 (see the glossary on page 137) as a shortened version of the first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘O God, we praise you’, cf. GSDT 14.15–16 Dywawd canu Te Deum ‘he sang Te Deum’; see ODCC 1592–3 (for a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM). However, the unusual form Tu De is not attested elsewhere, and it is therefore more likely that Lewys Daron is referring here to the right hand side of God, cf. Lewys Môn in an elegy for Ieuan ap Llywelyn, GLM XXV.85–6 Trefnu mae’r Iesu ei ran / o’r tu de i’r Tad, IeuanJesus is preparing his share, Ieuan, from [his place on] the right hand side of the Father’. As this couplet by Lewys Môn shows, Jesus sits on the right hand side of God, and therefore the righteous ones will also sit on Jesus’s right hand side, see Mark 16.19; Matthew 25.31–46. The point of Lewys Daron’s couplet is therefore to show that Peter could enable people to be with Christ in heaven. erot ti dôn’.
55Gŵr mwya’ a wnaeth 16 mwya’ a wnaeth It is likely that this was the reading in the source, which was copied correctly in LlGC 21248D and emended in C 2.114 mwyn aeth, C 4.110 mwya nerth and LlGC 3048D mwy a naeth. grymio’n wych 17 grymio’n wych Every manuscript except LlGC 3048D grym ion suggests that this is a verb, namely grymio ‘prevail’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. grymiaf. On suppressing mutation following gwnaeth, see TC 186.
O’r deuddeg, er Duw, oeddych.
Grasol oedd y gwir Iesu,
Gwarant dy feddiant di fu.
Porthor i’m Iôr yma wyd,
60Pab a thad pob iaith ydwyd.
Ffynnaist, ystynnaist dy stad, 18 dy stad Every manuscript has ystad except LlGC 3048D y stad. It is likely that the pronoun, which better suits the meaning here, was lost under the influence of the last letter in the preceding word, ystynnaist, and that the last word in the l. was stad, cf. l. 8 Gŵr o stad.
Ffyniant i’r tenant18 [y] tenant Possibly the pope in Rome, but the context points towards the priest of Peter’s church in Newborough. tanad!
Tref Rosyr, tyrfa wresawg,
Teiroes Duw rhoed trosti rhawg!
65Ni chaut ŵr na chaterwen
Na bair iach hwnt, Niwbwrch 19 Niwbwrch Note the forms: C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D ⁠niobwrch⁠, C 4.110 ⁠Newbwrch⁠, LlGC 21248D ⁠nvwbwrch⁠. wen.19 Ll. 65–6. As discussed in the textual note on this l., it is likely that the poet is addressing the priest here, whom he refers to as the tenant in l. 62 (see the note), but he may also be addressing ⁠Niwbwrch wen ‘blessed Newborough’. The subject of the verb in the second l. is Peter. 20 Ll. 65–6. Both C 4.110 and LlGC 3048D have Na bai’r iach in l. 66, but this reading makes little sense unless iach is understood as ‘lineage’, ‘You wouldn’t find a great man … who’s not of the lineage yonder’, cf. the reference to the [g]waed da ‘good blood’ of Newborough in l. 68, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ach5. It is more likely that the poet addresses the priest in l. 65 (namely the tenant referred to in l. 62) before referring in l. 66 to Peter’s care for the inhabitants of his parish. The poet may also be addressing ⁠Niwbwrch wen ‘blessed Newborough’.
Lle caid bwrdeisiaid dwysir,20 dwysir Probably Anglesey and Caernarfonshire, cf. l. 40 sir Fôn⁠. It is also possible that Lewys Daron is referring back to the relocation of the inhabitants of Llan-faes at Newborough following the conquest, when people were brought together from two different parts of the island, namely the commotes of Menai and Dindaethwy, see WATU 6–7, 233 (map).
Llyna waed da’n llenwi’n tir: 21 llenwi’n tir There is no pronoun in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D, but note the use of the first person plural in other parts of the poem.
Morynion gwchion a gwŷr,
70Mowredd gwragedd goreugwyr.21 Mowredd gwragedd goreugwyr Cf. GG.net 88.21 Diwedd gwragedd goreugwyr.
Penaethiaid, adeiliaid 22 adeiliaid LlGC 21248D a deiliaid is possible, but C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D ydeiliaid, as well as C 4.110 adeiliaid, points to adeiliaid ‘citizens’, even though there are no examples before 1567 in GPC Ar Lein s.v. adeiliad2. oedd,
Pedr yn eu helpu ydoedd.
Y goriadau 23 Y goriadau It is likely that ygoriadav was the reading in the source, and that C 4.110 Agoriadau and LlGC 21248D egoriadav interpreted this as a plural form of ygoriad (a variant form of agoriad), cf. GG.net 73.29 Ygoriad i’n gwlad i glêr. The first letter was seen as the definite article in C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D, which is more likely here, cf. l. 34 goriad. a gredwn
A roes ein Tad i’r sant hwn; 24 A roes ein Tad i’r sant hwn This l. was reworked in C 4.110 Moes ein Tâd am un sant hwn (note that un sant echoes the first l. of the poem), possibly because the l. was obscure either in X1 or the source.
75Dyro 25 Dyro On the form doro in LlGC 3048D, see G 437–8 s.v. dyroddi. i’r llu dorau ar lled 26 dorau ar lled It is likely that a few scribes believed this l. to be eight syllables long, and decided to shorten the second half: C 4.110 dôr ar lled, LlGC 21248D draw ar lled. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D, assuming that Dyro i’r in the first half contracts to form two syllables.
I nef wen i ni fyned!

Great is our talk of the one saint
with a golden halo1 mwg aur Literally ‘golden smoke’. For the combination, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. mwg ‘nimbus, halo’. around his crown.2 coron ‘Crown of the head’ is possible (GPC Ar Lein s.n. coron (c)), but the pope’s threefold crown is more likely.
Whatever I sing, if I make praise,
will go to wise old Peter.3 Bedr … wybodawl The same consonantal cynghanedd appears in Iolo Goch’s poem, ‘The Twelve Apostles and the Judgement’, IGP 27.2 I Bedr ddoeth wybodawl.
5You’re a pope4 pab It was believed that Peter was the first pope who officiated in Rome during the last twenty-five years of his life, see ODCC 1269–70; cf. ll. 49, 53, 60. who knows everyone,
you’re our gatekeeper towards heaven;
the very best reputation since his birth,
you’re a man of substance under Christ.5 Gŵr o stad dan Grist wyt ti The break in this l. falls after dan. On placing the main stress on a preposition and other minor words, see CD 266–8. As for the consonantal cynghanedd in this l., as well as the combination gŵr o stad, cf. GHS 29.19 Gŵr o stad i Grist ydoedd ‘he was a man of substance for Christ’.

The vagabonds and the evil ones
10caught Jesus down below in front of your eyes.
You were able to accomplish
God’s will completely.6 cyfa lân A combination, in all likelihood, cf. cyfa gwbl ‘altogether complete or entire’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. cyfan gwbl.
Even though you denied gracious Jesus,
you went, by God, to follow Him.
15There was fear of treachery7 bwriad See GPC Ar Lein s.v. bwriad2 1 (c) ‘conspiracy, treachery’.
– heaven for your life – for you, who denied Him.8 Ll. 9–16. On Christ’s foretelling of Peter’s threefold denial, and Peter following Christ and the soldiers from a distance, see Matthew 26.31–5, 57–8, 69–75; Mark 14.27–31, 53–4, 66–72; Luke 22.31–4, 54–62; John 13.36–8, 18.15–18, 25–7.
You went the next day (he came gently)
to old Herod’s9 Herodr An unusual form of the king of Judea’s name, influenced by herodr (see GPC Ar Lein s.v. herod ‘herald at arms’), which is used in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd (-d- becomes voiceless under the influence of h- in hen, see CD 206). prison.
Four were placed by his counsel
20in your resting-place to keep watch over you.
Even though the wicked ones10 ’r diraswyr Contraction of o’r diraswyr, where the subject is governed by the preposition o. closed the doors,
the men acted none too wisely.
God sent to you to destroy
the enemies of the unsullied tower.11 Ll. 23–4. The verb gyrrodd probably has no object, with galon being a plural form of gâl ‘enemy’, namely Herod’s soldiers, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gâl1. They were executed by Herod when it was found that Peter had escaped. Following the poet’s generally negative view of Herod’s prison, tŵr glân seems inconsistent, but it may refer to the fact that Peter escaped from prison miraculously without damaging any doors or walls, see ll. 17–28n. Another possibility is that the object of the verb is [c]alon ‘heart’, namely the angel who released Peter from prison, cf. GG.net 6.27–8 Calon nid aeth, winfaeth wen, / Erioed uwch i Rydychen⁠ ‘No nobler heart ever went to Oxford, white one nurtured on wine’ (for Abbot Rhys of Strata Florida).
25God’s angel came there to seek you
(your state was fortunate).
From thoroughly conspicuous dangers,
His manifestation went to free you.12 Ll. 17–28. On Peter’s incarceration by Herod and rescue by an angel, see Acts 12.1–19. The Bible notes that Herod appointed ‘four squads of four soldiers each’ to guard Peter, but only four are noted in l. 19.

Jesus died down below,
30after being there He rose to life,
and He placed after His death
the door of heaven in your grace,
and to the same place He entrusted
the key of mercy, almighty God.
35A leader governing a [heavenly] host,
gatekeeper to the treasure of Jesus’s tower.13 Ll. 29–36. Cf. Christ’s words to Peter in Matthew 16.18–19: ‘And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven’ (cf. Mark 8.27–30 and Luke 9.18–21).

Whoever desires any pure request,
may he go quickly to the town of Rhosyr!
Seek to keep order in your chancel,14 … Rosyr! / Mewn dy gôr … The meaning could be carried over both couplets (… i dref Rosyr / Mewn dy gôr ‘to the town of Rhosyr into your chancel’), but the first couplet seems more effective on its own.
40which is [a second] Rome over Anglesey yonder.
Every healthy person, everyone, would give us your name,
you15 gwnai The second singular present form of the verb gwneuthur (today gwnei), cf. GG.net 25.28. The third singular imperfect form, [g]wnâi, is also possible, but note that Lewys Daron addresses Peter in the second person without exception in this part of the poem. heal every unhealthy person.
A humble man of faith suffering from an illness
who’s in the greatest pain in the world,
45will be a healthy man, send favours,
gold above in your presence restores health.
If a feeble crowd would come to your chancel,
they will feel better and better as they leave.16 Maent wellwell yn mynd allan The -t in maent was likely pronounced as a -d by Lewys Daron when he performed the poem, in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd, cf. maend in the manuscript copies; GG.net 94.12 A’i rent ef i’r un Dafydd.
A pope who sets everyone to pray,
50your church is a paradise,
as well as your chancel and gold and fine wax,
and your chalices and sweet-sounding bells.
Every soul, o rightful pope,
will go on the right hand side17 i’r tu de These words are interpreted in GLD 28.54 (see the glossary on page 137) as a shortened version of the first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘O God, we praise you’, cf. GSDT 14.15–16 Dywawd canu Te Deum ‘he sang Te Deum’; see ODCC 1592–3 (for a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM). However, the unusual form Tu De is not attested elsewhere, and it is therefore more likely that Lewys Daron is referring here to the right hand side of God, cf. Lewys Môn in an elegy for Ieuan ap Llywelyn, GLM XXV.85–6 Trefnu mae’r Iesu ei ran / o’r tu de i’r Tad, IeuanJesus is preparing his share, Ieuan, from [his place on] the right hand side of the Father’. As this couplet by Lewys Môn shows, Jesus sits on the right hand side of God, and therefore the righteous ones will also sit on Jesus’s right hand side, see Mark 16.19; Matthew 25.31–46. The point of Lewys Daron’s couplet is therefore to show that Peter could enable people to be with Christ in heaven. [of God] because of you.
55By God, you who prevailed magnificently
were the greatest one of the twelve.
Jesus the just was gracious,
your authority was an assurance.
You’re my Lord’s gatekeeper here,
60you’re a pope and father to every nation.
You prospered, you furthered your status,
prosperity to the tenant18 [y] tenant Possibly the pope in Rome, but the context points towards the priest of Peter’s church in Newborough. below you!
The town of Rhosyr, zealous crowd,
may God grant it three ages for ever more!
65You wouldn’t find a great man nor a mighty nobleman
whom he didn’t make healthy yonder, blessed Newborough.19 Ll. 65–6. As discussed in the textual note on this l., it is likely that the poet is addressing the priest here, whom he refers to as the tenant in l. 62 (see the note), but he may also be addressing ⁠Niwbwrch wen ‘blessed Newborough’. The subject of the verb in the second l. is Peter.
Where the burgesses of two shires20 dwysir Probably Anglesey and Caernarfonshire, cf. l. 40 sir Fôn⁠. It is also possible that Lewys Daron is referring back to the relocation of the inhabitants of Llan-faes at Newborough following the conquest, when people were brought together from two different parts of the island, namely the commotes of Menai and Dindaethwy, see WATU 6–7, 233 (map). were found,
behold there good blood that fills our land:
magnificent maidens and men,
70the splendour of the wives of the greatest men.21 Mowredd gwragedd goreugwyr Cf. GG.net 88.21 Diwedd gwragedd goreugwyr.
There were rulers and citizens,
Peter helped them.
It’s our belief that our Father
gave the keys to this saint;
75open wide the doors for the host
to blessed heaven so that we can go!

1 mwg aur Literally ‘golden smoke’. For the combination, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. mwg ‘nimbus, halo’.

2 coron ‘Crown of the head’ is possible (GPC Ar Lein s.n. coron (c)), but the pope’s threefold crown is more likely.

3 Bedr … wybodawl The same consonantal cynghanedd appears in Iolo Goch’s poem, ‘The Twelve Apostles and the Judgement’, IGP 27.2 I Bedr ddoeth wybodawl.

4 pab It was believed that Peter was the first pope who officiated in Rome during the last twenty-five years of his life, see ODCC 1269–70; cf. ll. 49, 53, 60.

5 Gŵr o stad dan Grist wyt ti The break in this l. falls after dan. On placing the main stress on a preposition and other minor words, see CD 266–8. As for the consonantal cynghanedd in this l., as well as the combination gŵr o stad, cf. GHS 29.19 Gŵr o stad i Grist ydoedd ‘he was a man of substance for Christ’.

6 cyfa lân A combination, in all likelihood, cf. cyfa gwbl ‘altogether complete or entire’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. cyfan gwbl.

7 bwriad See GPC Ar Lein s.v. bwriad2 1 (c) ‘conspiracy, treachery’.

8 Ll. 9–16. On Christ’s foretelling of Peter’s threefold denial, and Peter following Christ and the soldiers from a distance, see Matthew 26.31–5, 57–8, 69–75; Mark 14.27–31, 53–4, 66–72; Luke 22.31–4, 54–62; John 13.36–8, 18.15–18, 25–7.

9 Herodr An unusual form of the king of Judea’s name, influenced by herodr (see GPC Ar Lein s.v. herod ‘herald at arms’), which is used in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd (-d- becomes voiceless under the influence of h- in hen, see CD 206).

10 ’r diraswyr Contraction of o’r diraswyr, where the subject is governed by the preposition o.

11 Ll. 23–4. The verb gyrrodd probably has no object, with galon being a plural form of gâl ‘enemy’, namely Herod’s soldiers, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gâl1. They were executed by Herod when it was found that Peter had escaped. Following the poet’s generally negative view of Herod’s prison, tŵr glân seems inconsistent, but it may refer to the fact that Peter escaped from prison miraculously without damaging any doors or walls, see ll. 17–28n. Another possibility is that the object of the verb is [c]alon ‘heart’, namely the angel who released Peter from prison, cf. GG.net 6.27–8 Calon nid aeth, winfaeth wen, / Erioed uwch i Rydychen⁠ ‘No nobler heart ever went to Oxford, white one nurtured on wine’ (for Abbot Rhys of Strata Florida).

12 Ll. 17–28. On Peter’s incarceration by Herod and rescue by an angel, see Acts 12.1–19. The Bible notes that Herod appointed ‘four squads of four soldiers each’ to guard Peter, but only four are noted in l. 19.

13 Ll. 29–36. Cf. Christ’s words to Peter in Matthew 16.18–19: ‘And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven’ (cf. Mark 8.27–30 and Luke 9.18–21).

14 … Rosyr! / Mewn dy gôr … The meaning could be carried over both couplets (… i dref Rosyr / Mewn dy gôr ‘to the town of Rhosyr into your chancel’), but the first couplet seems more effective on its own.

15 gwnai The second singular present form of the verb gwneuthur (today gwnei), cf. GG.net 25.28. The third singular imperfect form, [g]wnâi, is also possible, but note that Lewys Daron addresses Peter in the second person without exception in this part of the poem.

16 Maent wellwell yn mynd allan The -t in maent was likely pronounced as a -d by Lewys Daron when he performed the poem, in order to complete the consonantal cynghanedd, cf. maend in the manuscript copies; GG.net 94.12 A’i rent ef i’r un Dafydd.

17 i’r tu de These words are interpreted in GLD 28.54 (see the glossary on page 137) as a shortened version of the first words of a well-known Latin hymn to God and Christ, Te Deum laudamus ‘O God, we praise you’, cf. GSDT 14.15–16 Dywawd canu Te Deum ‘he sang Te Deum’; see ODCC 1592–3 (for a Middle Welsh translation of the hymn, see GM). However, the unusual form Tu De is not attested elsewhere, and it is therefore more likely that Lewys Daron is referring here to the right hand side of God, cf. Lewys Môn in an elegy for Ieuan ap Llywelyn, GLM XXV.85–6 Trefnu mae’r Iesu ei ran / o’r tu de i’r Tad, IeuanJesus is preparing his share, Ieuan, from [his place on] the right hand side of the Father’. As this couplet by Lewys Môn shows, Jesus sits on the right hand side of God, and therefore the righteous ones will also sit on Jesus’s right hand side, see Mark 16.19; Matthew 25.31–46. The point of Lewys Daron’s couplet is therefore to show that Peter could enable people to be with Christ in heaven.

18 [y] tenant Possibly the pope in Rome, but the context points towards the priest of Peter’s church in Newborough.

19 Ll. 65–6. As discussed in the textual note on this l., it is likely that the poet is addressing the priest here, whom he refers to as the tenant in l. 62 (see the note), but he may also be addressing ⁠Niwbwrch wen ‘blessed Newborough’. The subject of the verb in the second l. is Peter.

20 dwysir Probably Anglesey and Caernarfonshire, cf. l. 40 sir Fôn⁠. It is also possible that Lewys Daron is referring back to the relocation of the inhabitants of Llan-faes at Newborough following the conquest, when people were brought together from two different parts of the island, namely the commotes of Menai and Dindaethwy, see WATU 6–7, 233 (map).

21 Mowredd gwragedd goreugwyr Cf. GG.net 88.21 Diwedd gwragedd goreugwyr.

1 yw’n sôn C 2.114 yw son is possible, with an unanswered n in the first half of the l., and likewise LlGC 3048D yw /r/ sôn, with one r answering two. But the reading in the edition, which is found in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D, fits better. The pronoun may have been absent in the source.

2 gwnaf fawl The first -f has vanished under the influence of the second (gwna fawl) in every manuscript.

3 Gorau Cf. C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D gore, possibly a dialectal form, but it is more likely that the source had gorev, the last letter of which was omitted under the influence of the following word, vn.

4 oedd Contrast C 2.114 draw, which makes the cynghanedd incorrect.

5 a’r The definite article is absent in LlGC 3048D, in all likelihood under the influence of -r at the beginning of the next word, rhai, while the conjunction a is absent in C 4.110 y. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 21248D. The use of the definite article at the beginning of the l. strongly suggests that it was used here too.

6 Iso’n C 2.114 isso yn probably reflects best the original reading in the source, and the necessary use of the apostrophe is seen in LlGC 21248D iso /n/. These readings probably lie behind the incorrect readings in C 4.110 Sôn yn and LlGC 3048D ison yn.

7 ’Wyllys The source probably had ywyllys, cf. C 2.114 y wyllys and LlGC 3048D ywyllys, both of which have eight syllable lines. The original reading was likely cut short in LlGC 21248D wllys, which is not noted as a variant form of ewyllys in GPC Ar Lein. The poet probably used the abbreviated form ’wyllys. Only in C 4.110 Ewyllys is the a in the second half of the l. omitted in order to shorten it.

8 Ofnad Note the unnecessary separation in LlGC 21248D ofn nad.

9 Ne’ i’th The source doubtless had neith, as seen in both C 2.114 (even though the first letter of the word is unclear) and LlGC 3048D. The word neith (a possible re-formation of neithior) appears in GPC Ar Lein s.v. neith1 ‘belief, faith’, and would not be out of place here except for the fact that it first appears in Edward Lhuyd’s Archaeologia Britannica in 1707 and from then on in lexicographical sources only. The edition follows LlGC 21248D ne ith, where the original reading has been separated (even though another word was unnecessarily separated in the preceding l., see l. 15n Ofnad), and it is assumed that both words contract to form one syllable, as the original reading would have suggested, cf. GSDT 4.90 A ne’ i Owain wineuwyn (where ne’ i similarly contracts). C 4.110 I’th is surely a simplification of the source’s difficult reading.

10 Pedwor o’i gyngor It seems that uncertainty about pedwor, an unusual variant form of pedwar (see GPC Ar Lein s.v.; cf. BeunoRhGE ll.55 Gweles bedwor, cerddor cain), led to emendments in C 4.110 Pedwar i garchar and LlGC 21248D pedwar oi gyfar. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D.

11 Er cau’r drysau ’r diraswyr It is likely that this was the reading in the source, which was copied faithfully in LlGC 3048D and emended in C 2.114 er kavr dryssav or dirasswyr. The first definite article was dropped in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D. Contraction of o’r diraswyr is likely to ensure regular l. length and sonorous internal rhyming between cau’r and drysau ’r.

12 Drws nef Both C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D have the definite article before nef, and their lines are therefore eight syllables long.

13 Pennaeth C 2.114 pen aeth (that is, Pan aeth) is also possible, but Pennaeth is more likely.

14 ufydd It is almost certain that this was the reading in the source, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ufudd. It was miscopied in C 4.110 and LlGC 3048D a fydd.

15 O delai Cf. LlGC 3048D od elai. The edition follows the majority reading.

16 mwya’ a wnaeth It is likely that this was the reading in the source, which was copied correctly in LlGC 21248D and emended in C 2.114 mwyn aeth, C 4.110 mwya nerth and LlGC 3048D mwy a naeth.

17 grymio’n wych Every manuscript except LlGC 3048D grym ion suggests that this is a verb, namely grymio ‘prevail’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. grymiaf. On suppressing mutation following gwnaeth, see TC 186.

18 dy stad Every manuscript has ystad except LlGC 3048D y stad. It is likely that the pronoun, which better suits the meaning here, was lost under the influence of the last letter in the preceding word, ystynnaist, and that the last word in the l. was stad, cf. l. 8 Gŵr o stad.

19 Niwbwrch Note the forms: C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D ⁠niobwrch⁠, C 4.110 ⁠Newbwrch⁠, LlGC 21248D ⁠nvwbwrch⁠.

20 Ll. 65–6. Both C 4.110 and LlGC 3048D have Na bai’r iach in l. 66, but this reading makes little sense unless iach is understood as ‘lineage’, ‘You wouldn’t find a great man … who’s not of the lineage yonder’, cf. the reference to the [g]waed da ‘good blood’ of Newborough in l. 68, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ach5. It is more likely that the poet addresses the priest in l. 65 (namely the tenant referred to in l. 62) before referring in l. 66 to Peter’s care for the inhabitants of his parish. The poet may also be addressing ⁠Niwbwrch wen ‘blessed Newborough’.

21 llenwi’n tir There is no pronoun in C 4.110 and LlGC 21248D, but note the use of the first person plural in other parts of the poem.

22 adeiliaid LlGC 21248D a deiliaid is possible, but C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D ydeiliaid, as well as C 4.110 adeiliaid, points to adeiliaid ‘citizens’, even though there are no examples before 1567 in GPC Ar Lein s.v. adeiliad2.

23 Y goriadau It is likely that ygoriadav was the reading in the source, and that C 4.110 Agoriadau and LlGC 21248D egoriadav interpreted this as a plural form of ygoriad (a variant form of agoriad), cf. GG.net 73.29 Ygoriad i’n gwlad i glêr. The first letter was seen as the definite article in C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D, which is more likely here, cf. l. 34 goriad.

24 A roes ein Tad i’r sant hwn This l. was reworked in C 4.110 Moes ein Tâd am un sant hwn (note that un sant echoes the first l. of the poem), possibly because the l. was obscure either in X1 or the source.

25 Dyro On the form doro in LlGC 3048D, see G 437–8 s.v. dyroddi.

26 dorau ar lled It is likely that a few scribes believed this l. to be eight syllables long, and decided to shorten the second half: C 4.110 dôr ar lled, LlGC 21248D draw ar lled. The edition follows C 2.114 and LlGC 3048D, assuming that Dyro i’r in the first half contracts to form two syllables.