Select notes:
Translation:

9. Moliant i Fwrog (Gruffudd Nannau)

edited by Eurig Salisbury

A prayer by Gruffudd Nannau to Mwrog to release Ithel and Rhys, sons of Ieuan Fychan of Pengwern, from prison. Date soon after July 1457.

Mawr yw dy wrthiau’r awron,
Mwrog Sant,1 Mwrog Sant On him, see LBS iii, 505–6. mae 1 mae Cf. Gwyn 3 mawr, probably an emendment under the influence of the same word in the preceding l. rhywiog sôn,
Bugail y côr baglog, gwyn,
Benrhaith, ail Beuno2 Beuno On the saint, see LBS i, 208–21, Sims-Williams 2018:1–88. Rhuthun.3 Rhuthun The church of Llanfwrog is located on a hill not far west of Ruthin.
5Duw a roes (pand da yr aeth?)4 Duw a roes (pand da yr aeth?) The second half of the line has -d d-, which would usually become a voiceless t (cf. l. 3, where –g g- become a voiceless c), but the corresponding consonant in the first half of the line is d.
Iwch ragor, wych rywogaeth:
Gwrthiau – mawr Ei gywerthydd5 mawr Ei gywerthydd Gruffudd Nannau addresses Mwrog directly throughout the poem, therefore he is probably addressing God (who is named in l. 5) in the third person here rather than the saint.2 Gwrthiau – mawr Ei gywerthydd The edition tentatively follows Gwyn 3, whose reading seems to convey the meaning slightly better than the likely reading of X2 Y gwrthiau – mawr Ei g’werthydd.
Yn dy feddiant, sant, y sydd.
Pob claf a phob dyn afiach
10Heb fost a wnaethost yn iach; 3 Ll. 9–10. This couplet is in Gwyn 3 only. See further, ll. 13–14n.
Y deilliaid ger bron 4 ger bron ‘Before’. The edition tentatively follows Gwyn 3, contrast X2 o fewn ‘within’. If the reading in the source was o fewn, the oral tradition from which the text of Gwyn 3 probably stems may have caused it to change due to the fact that o fewn dy also appears in the next l., as it was unusual for the same combination of words to appear twice within the same couplet. If so, there may have been crevices in the saint’s altar at Llanfwrog in which one could place a hand or arm while asking for the saint’s blessing, or even spaces where one could kneel on hands and knees. However, it seems more likely that the reading in the source was ger bron, and that this l. was changed in X2 under the influenc of the next l. d’allor
Yn dy gylch o fewn dy gôr,
Gwnaethost iddyn’ yn unawr6 yn unawr Not literally ‘in one hour’, but ‘in an instant’, cf. GGLl 15.28 I lawr ar unawr yna ‘Down in a second there’; MWPSS 24.34 Wrth unawr yr aeth yno ‘In one instant he went there’; GG.net 17.31 yn yr unawr ‘in one go’.
Gweled mil goleuad mawr; 5 Ll. 13–14. This couplet, as well as ll. 9–10, is in Gwyn 3 only. The couplet doubtless forms a pair with ll. 11–12 in terms of meaning, similar to the pairing of ll. 15–16 and 17–18. It is likely that the couplet was lost from X2 as the scribe jumped from Gwyddost at the beginning of l. 13 to the same word at the beginning of l. 15. Lines 9–10 are likewise accepted as genuine, but it is less obvious how they were lost from X2, except as they are part of a common list of miracles and therefore would have been easier to forget.
15Gwnaethost dithau, gwn, wythwaith,7 wythwaith The number of times may be significant but, without other references to the number eight in connection with the saints, ‘many times’ is probably the meaning here, see Henken 1991 180–1. 6 Gwnaethost dithau, gwn, wythwaith There seems to be signs of oral transmission in Gwyn 3 A gwneuthur mi a’i gwnn ŵyth-waith, where the sentence flows into the line from the previous couplet, cf. the manuscript’s reading for ll. 26–7. The text has a small connecting line under the words mi a’i (possibly in the hand of the scribe, Jaspar Gryffyth), in all likelihood in order to signify that these words contracted into a diphthong, but this seems highly unlikely. Furthermore, the loss of the previous couplet from X2 is best explained by the fact that the word Gwnaethost was found originally at the beginning of this l., see ll. 13‒14n.
I’r rhai 7 I’r rhai Both C 3.37 and Gwyn 3 do not have the definite article. Note the use of the definite article in l. 11 Y deilliaid. ni cherddai8 ni cherddai On the mutation, see TC 358. ychwaith
Redeg ar dy waredydd9 ar dy waredydd Namely the slopes of the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gwaered ‘downward slope, descent’; cf. l. 23n.
Heb un ffon, Mwrog ben ffydd.

Dof i’th orsedd10 gorsedd Possibly ‘abode’, but cf. the combination gorseddfa sant ‘saint’s shrine’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gorsedd1 1 (c), gorseddfa. fucheddol,
20Dyn wyf â’i neges da 8 da This is not in Gwyn 3, where the cynghanedd is incomplete. ’n ôl;11 Dyn wyf â’i neges da ’n ôl Possibly ‘a man whose good mission is uncompleted’, but ‘a man whose good mission follows him’ is more likely, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ôl1 and the combination yn ôl (i), (xi).
Clyw o Wynedd⁠12 Gwynedd The Vale of Clwyd (see l. 4n ⁠Rhuthun⁠) was part of Gwynedd Is Conwy (see WATU 85), but as Gruffudd Nannau was presumably from Nannau near Dolgellau, he may be referring here to his journey to Llanfwrog from Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. fy ngweddi,
Clwyfus ofalus wyf i.
Gŵyr fy nghalon ar fron fry13 fy nghalon ar fron fry It seems that the poet is referring to the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, ‘on a hill-side on high’, cf. l. 17n. Another possibility is that [b]ron fry refers to the poet’s breast, that is ‘my heart and the breast above [it]’.
Gwayw hiraeth, gwae a’i hery!14 Gwayw hiraeth, gwae a’i hery Cf. GGGr 7.8 Gwe hirerw (gwae a’i hery!); GHS 24.27 Â gwayw hir gwae a’i hery. On ery, the third singular present form of the verb aros, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. arhosaf (d) ‘to endure (patiently), suffer’.
25Nid hiraeth, annwyd hoywryw,
Ac nid serch ar ferch yn fyw –
Hiraeth meibion maeth y medd 9 Hiraeth meibion maeth y medd C 3.37 has a six-syllable line without the definite article, and the definite article is also absent in Gwyn 3, which has Ond at the beginning of the l. It is possible that there was no definite article in the source and in X2, and that the problem with the length of the l. was solved by adding Ond in the oral tradition of Gwyn 3 and by adding the definite article in X3. The combination maeth and medd appears both with and without the definite article in the work of other poets, see GIRh 3.1 Hywel a wnaeth, mab maeth medd; GDEp 7.45 Rhoi a wnaeth, mab maeth y medd. The edition follows X3, as Gwyn 3 has another similar example of emending by carrying the meaning from one couplet to the next, see l. 15n.
A’m gyr i farw o’m gorwedd.
Am Ithel mi a euthum,
30Meddai 10 Meddai Contrast a colloquial form in Gwyn 3 medde. bawb, o’r modd y bûm.
Gwn i bryderi dyrys,
Gŵyr ’y mron gwewyr15 gŵyr ’y mron gwewyr The mutation is prevented by the break in the middle of the line, see TC 196. am Rys.16 Ll. 29–32 Ithel … / … / … / … Rhys On the two brothers, see the introductory notes. They are named again, in the same order, in ll. 45–8, which possibly suggests that Ithel was the eldest, cf. Guto’r Glyn’s poems of praise for the sons of Llywelyn ap Hwlcyn of Anglesey and the sons of Edward ap Dafydd of Bryncunallt, where both sets of brothers are probably named in order of their age, GG.net poems 63 and 103.
Meibion Ifan, 11 Ifan This form is found in every source, but the form Ieuan is used in the title of the edition in line with Guto’r Glyn’s poem to request reconciliation from Ieuan Fychan, see GG.net poem 106. In discussing the use of both Ifan and Ieuan in Guto’s work, it is noted that poets often used two forms of the same name, sometimes within the same poem, see ibid. 106.11n (textual). The cynghanedd in most of the examples in Guto’s poem is of no use in determining the correct form, but his use of Ieuan in one line of cynghanedd lusg wyrdro strongly suggests that he used that form in this line and, possibly, throughout the poem, see ibid. 106.37 Yr oedd gampau ar Ieuan. The cynghanedd does not aid the discussion in this line by Gruffudd Nannau nor in two poems by Maredudd ap Rhys in which he addresses Ieuan Fychan (contrary to what is stated in GMRh 6), see ibid. 10.18 Wneuthur o Ifan, lân lais, 21 A phe Ifan Fychan fai, 62 Yn hoyw am Ifan huawdl, 12.9 Ifan Fychan lân, haelioni – Ifor (the only exception is 10.55 Naw’ Duw rhag myned Ieuan, but Ifan with a vocalic -f- is possible here too). mae ’m obaith,
Fychan,17 Ll. 33–4 Ifan … / Fychan Ieuan Fychan ab Ieuan of Pengwern (fl. c.1432–d. 1476/7), see GG.net 106. On this form of his name, see l. 33n (textual). y deuan’ o’r daith.
35O chuddiwyd gwŷr, awch addwyn,
Cant o rianedd a’u cwyn. 12 Ll. 35‒6. In Gwyn 3, this couplet, in which the poet refers to the longing of cant o rianedd ‘a hundred maidens’ for the two brothers, appears after l. 28, where the poet describes the damaging effect of the brothers’ imprisonment on his own health. The edition follows the line order of X2, where l. 28 is followed by three couplets in which the poet continues to describe the effect of the imprisonment in the first person, after which he then refers the maidens’ response. This change in line order in Gwyn 3 probably reflects an oral tradition.
Och allel 13 Och allel The reading in Gwyn 3 Er gallel leaves the cynghanedd incomplete. o ddichellwyr
Roi llen gêl ar ieirll ein 14 ein Cf. Gwyn 3 iw, where there is an unanswered n in the first half of the line. The edition follows X2, in line with the belief that the text of Gwyn 3 stems from an oral tradition which occasionally emended the text. gwŷr!
Mwrog, gwna ynn ymwared
40Am ddau o ben creiriau Cred!
Gwyddost lle mae dau flaenor 15 Gwyddost lle mae dau flaenor It is unclear what was in X3: C 4.101 lle mae/n ddav flaenawor; LlGC 3049D lle mae n dav flaenor dav. The first is questionable in terms of meaning, and it is possible that the second is an attempt to correct it. But it is also possible that Huw Machno incorrectly divided maenddav, and that what was meant in his source was the much more convincing reading maen’ (maent ‘they are’). However, the fact that the edition’s reading is found in both C 3.37 and Gwyn 3 strongly suggests that this was the reading in X2 and in the source, and that the reading in X3 was an attempted emending of the weak cynghanedd lusg wyrdro by rhyming -aen in full. A full rhyme is certainly the norm in this type of cynghanedd (cf. GG.net 23.39 O rhoed Siarlmaen yn flaenawr), but two examples of incomplete rhyming both in a line of cynghanedd lusg wyrdro and in a line of regular cynghanedd lusg are noted in CD 177 footnote 1. The first is found in the earliest copy of a poem by Ieuan Brydydd Hir in manuscript Pen 53 (c.1484), rac cleddeu y … deheubarth⁠ (RWM i 408; a later reading is followed in the edition of GIBH 4.45 Rhag cleddau’r Deau diwarth), and the second is found in the earliest copy of a poem attributed to Dafydd ap Gwilym in C 4.330 (c.1574), Euraid ffriw, at Fair wiwgoeth (DGA 36.39; DGG2 XXVII.39). Unlike Gruffudd Nannau’s line, the end rhymes in both these lines are compound words and, therefore, a full rhyme involving the first consonant of the second element is unnecessary. Nonetheless, the edition tentatively follows the likely reading of the source.
Mewn castell ym machell môr.18 castell ym machell môr For a discussion on the castle’s location, see the introductory notes and l. 48n ⁠Gwlad yr Haf⁠. As for ym machell môr, the edition follows GPC Ar Lein s.v. bachell (b) ‘bay, creek, inlet’, but (a) ‘nook, angle’ and (c) ‘snare … clutch, grapple’ are also possible.
Cyfod 16 Cyfod Cf. Huw Machno’s emendment in C 4.101 kvr ath, probably under the influence of the next line. dy fagl yn draglew,
Cur frig 17 frig This is not in Gwyn 3, which leaves the cynghanedd incomplete. y tŵr cerrig tew;
45Dwg er fy 18 Dwg er fy Cf. Gwyn 3 Tyn er dy. The reading in C 4.101 dvg is probably an error. mendith19 dwg er fy mendith Gruffudd Nannau urges Mwrog to release the brothers in exchange for the praise which he gives to the saint in this poem, but [b]endith ‘blessing’ could also refer to Mwrog’s act in releasing them. Ithael
O’r 19 O’r Contrast X3 oi. tyrau hwnt, ŵr tra hael;
Unwaith, gwna help i’n ynys20 ynys Probably ‘land, vicinity’, cf. Gruffudd Nannau’s mention of Gwynedd in ll. 21n, 53n. But ‘island’ is also possible, namely either Anglesey (l. 54n) or Britain, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ynys. 20 Unwaith, gwna help i’n ynys This l. in Gwyn 3 par vn-waith help i’r Ynys shows signs of having been reworked by an expert, cf. l. 50n.
O Wlad yr Haf⁠21 Gwlad yr Haf The narrative in ll. 41–8 seems to suggest that the castell ym machell môr ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ (l. 42n) was located somewhere in Somerset but, as discussed in the introductory notes, there are no suitable locations in that area. It is noted in GILlF 4.16n that there are very few references to Somerset in the poetry ‘except in a prophetic context’, with reference to two examples in the work of Dafydd Llwyd o Fathafarn. Although prophetic imagery is often obscure, it is in fact highly likely that both examples refer to the lineage of Henry Tudor, namely that his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was the daughter of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, see GDLl 16.15–16 Taer yw draig, tarw a dragwn, / Gwlad yr Haf gwylied ar hwn ‘Fierce is the dragon, bull and warrior / of Somerset, take heed of him’, 18.39–40 Rhos cochion a goronir / O Wlad yr Haf, baladr hir ‘Red roses from Somerset will be crowned, / long spear’. Other likely references to the same family connections are found in poems of praise by Dafydd Epynt and Lewys Morgannwg, see GDEp 12.19n; GLMorg 3.48n. If the Wars of the Roses played any part in the imprisonment of Ithel and Rhys (see the introductory notes), Gruffudd Nannau may be referring here to Somerset simply as a traditionally Lancastrian stronghold. If so, locating the ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ remains open to further discussion. 21 O Wlad yr Haf Contrast Gwyn 3 i wlad yr haf. Williams (2001: 567 n413) suggested that the correct reading in Gwyn 3 was I’w wlad, yr haf, ‘i.e. a wish that Rhys should return to his land by summer’, which would get rid of the problem of locating the castle in Somerset, see l. 48n ⁠Gwlad yr Haf⁠ (explanatory). However, Somerset does not seem incompatible with the reference to a castle ym machell môr ‘in an inlet of sea’ (see l. 42n (explanatory)), even though the castle cannot be identified. The generally slap-dash nature of the text in Gwyn 3 suggests that i wlad yr haf⁠ is a corruption, possibly under the influence of the same preposition in the previous l., cf. l. 48n. weled Rhys.22 O Wlad yr Haf weled Rhys In terms of cynghanedd, weled Rys would be less problematic, but the ‘object’ of a verbal noun did not mutate, see TC 231–2. The regular devoicing (d > t before rh) seems to have been ignored here, cf. l. 5n.
Minnau a wnaf, myn y nef,23 Minnau a wnaf, myn y nef Like many other 15c. poets, Gruffudd Nannau apparently did not consider the proest rhyme in this l. to be a fault, see CD 255–7.
50Yn ddidro 22 ddidro The edition follows X2, whose l. was technically irregular, either because the order of consonants was faulty or (most likely) because n was intentionally left unanswered. The regular cynghanedd in Gwyn 3 ddinidir, namely di-nidr ‘unhindered, untrammelled’ (see GPC Ar Lein s.v. dinidr), shown signs of having been reworked by an expert. pan ddôn’ adref
Rhoi eu dau lun24 eu dau lun Gruffudd Nannau may be vowing to bring Ithel and Rhys before Mwrog in the flesh, but it is more likely that he is intending to present a gift of wax to the saint in the form of the two brothers, cf. MWPSS 23.69 I’m llaw’n cau iawn mae llun cwyr ‘In my hand, enclosing recompense, there is a waxen image’ (Lewys Morgannwg to Mary of Pen-rhys, who seems to have presented Mary with an image of her in wax); GTP 34.15‒16 Llun march i Illtud Farchog / O gŵyr a rown, myn y grog ‘I’d give a waxen image of a horse to Illtud Farchog, by the rood!’ gar dy law,25 gar dy law There may have been a statue or image of the saint in the church of Llanfwrog, cf. GLGC 129.63 myn delw Fwrog – wyn ‘by the image of holy Mwrog’. 23 Rhoi eu dau lun gar dy law The cynghanedd in this l. was doubtless incorrect in the source, as shown by Gwyn 3 Roddi dau lun ar dy law and the likely reading of X2 Rhoddi’u dau lun gar dy law. Huw Machno’s emendment in C 4.101 rhoi i dav lvn ar dy law is convincing and was most likely the poet’s original reading, cf. l. 54n Ac ym Môn, ti a gai mwy. However, the edition keeps gar from X2 as it is more likely that g- would have been lost from the source than added subsequently.
Ac aur er ei gywiraw.26 aur er ei gywiraw The pronoun probably refers in an unspecific way to the expected return of Ithel and Rhys, which is described in ll. 49–51. That is, Gruffudd Nannau will present Mwrog with a gift to ensure that he completes his side of the bargain. On the concept of making a deal with a saint, see Duffy 1992: 184–6.
Cai fendithion Uwch Conwy,27 Uwch Conwy Gwynedd to the west of river Conwy, see WATU 85.
Ac ym Môn,28 Môn Ithel and Rhys were descended from the family of Penmynydd on Anglesey, see the introductory notes. ti a gai mwy; 24 Ac ym Môn, ti a gai mwy The edition follows Gwyn 3. The consonantal cynghanedd in X2 Ac ym Môn, cai a fo mwy is unconvincing, as it includes a vocalic f and does not answer -c in Ac with g, as was the custom, but with c (cf. l. 52 Ac aur er ei gywiraw). It seems that in C 4.101 ag ymon di a gei mwy Huw Machno has correctly emended the l., cf. l. 51n Rhoi eu dau lun gar dy law.
55Cai lawer o baderau, 25 baderau The source was probably defective and had padereuau, a double plural form of pader with makes the cynghanedd incomplete, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. The cynghanedd lusg shows that the correct reading, as noticed by Huw Machno in C 4.101, is baderau. Furthermore, the underlining of the relevant letters in Gwyn 3 badreuau may have been done by the scribe, Jasper Gryffyth, probably in order to note the erroneous cynghanedd.
Cai glod am ddyfod â’r ddau.

Great are your miracles now,
St Mwrog,1 Mwrog Sant On him, see LBS iii, 505–6. there’s excellent talk [of them],
staff-bearing holy shepherd of the chancel,
lord, a second Beuno2 Beuno On the saint, see LBS i, 208–21, Sims-Williams 2018:1–88. for Rhuthun.3 Rhuthun The church of Llanfwrog is located on a hill not far west of Ruthin.
5God gave you superiority, noble lineage4 Duw a roes (pand da yr aeth?) The second half of the line has -d d-, which would usually become a voiceless t (cf. l. 3, where –g g- become a voiceless c), but the corresponding consonant in the first half of the line is d.
(didn’t that go well?):
miracles – great is His worth5 mawr Ei gywerthydd Gruffudd Nannau addresses Mwrog directly throughout the poem, therefore he is probably addressing God (who is named in l. 5) in the third person here rather than the saint.
are in your possession, saint.
With humility you healed
10every sick person and unhealthy man;
the blind people before your altar
surrounding you in your chancel,
in an instant6 yn unawr Not literally ‘in one hour’, but ‘in an instant’, cf. GGLl 15.28 I lawr ar unawr yna ‘Down in a second there’; MWPSS 24.34 Wrth unawr yr aeth yno ‘In one instant he went there’; GG.net 17.31 yn yr unawr ‘in one go’. you made them see
a thousand great lights;
15you also, I know, eight times,7 wythwaith The number of times may be significant but, without other references to the number eight in connection with the saints, ‘many times’ is probably the meaning here, see Henken 1991 180–1.
made those who couldn’t walk8 ni cherddai On the mutation, see TC 358. either
run on your slopes9 ar dy waredydd Namely the slopes of the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gwaered ‘downward slope, descent’; cf. l. 23n.
without a stick, Mwrog head of the faith.

I come before your virtuous shrine,10 gorsedd Possibly ‘abode’, but cf. the combination gorseddfa sant ‘saint’s shrine’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gorsedd1 1 (c), gorseddfa.
20I’m a man whose good mission follows him;11 Dyn wyf â’i neges da ’n ôl Possibly ‘a man whose good mission is uncompleted’, but ‘a man whose good mission follows him’ is more likely, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ôl1 and the combination yn ôl (i), (xi).
from Gwynedd12 Gwynedd The Vale of Clwyd (see l. 4n ⁠Rhuthun⁠) was part of Gwynedd Is Conwy (see WATU 85), but as Gruffudd Nannau was presumably from Nannau near Dolgellau, he may be referring here to his journey to Llanfwrog from Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. hear my prayer,
I’m unwell and anxious.
On a hill-side on high my heart13 fy nghalon ar fron fry It seems that the poet is referring to the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, ‘on a hill-side on high’, cf. l. 17n. Another possibility is that [b]ron fry refers to the poet’s breast, that is ‘my heart and the breast above [it]’.
knows pangs of longing, woe to him who endures it!14 Gwayw hiraeth, gwae a’i hery Cf. GGGr 7.8 Gwe hirerw (gwae a’i hery!); GHS 24.27 Â gwayw hir gwae a’i hery. On ery, the third singular present form of the verb aros, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. arhosaf (d) ‘to endure (patiently), suffer’.
25Not longing, vigorous feeling,
nor love for a living girl –
it’s longing [for] the sons fostered on mead
that is driving me to death from lying down.
On account of Ithel, so everyone said,
30I left my previous state.
I know deep distress,
my heart knows pain15 gŵyr ’y mron gwewyr The mutation is prevented by the break in the middle of the line, see TC 196. on account of Rhys.16 Ll. 29–32 Ithel … / … / … / … Rhys On the two brothers, see the introductory notes. They are named again, in the same order, in ll. 45–8, which possibly suggests that Ithel was the eldest, cf. Guto’r Glyn’s poems of praise for the sons of Llywelyn ap Hwlcyn of Anglesey and the sons of Edward ap Dafydd of Bryncunallt, where both sets of brothers are probably named in order of their age, GG.net poems 63 and 103.
I’m hopeful that the sons of Ieuan Fychan17 Ll. 33–4 Ifan … / Fychan Ieuan Fychan ab Ieuan of Pengwern (fl. c.1432–d. 1476/7), see GG.net 106. On this form of his name, see l. 33n (textual).
will return from the journey.
35If men have been concealed, worthy longing,
a hundred maidens will pine for them.
Oh that schemers were able
to place a veil over our men’s earls!
Mwrog, help us
40in the case of two of Christendom’s greatest treasures!
You know where two leaders are
in a castle in an inlet of sea.18 castell ym machell môr For a discussion on the castle’s location, see the introductory notes and l. 48n ⁠Gwlad yr Haf⁠. As for ym machell môr, the edition follows GPC Ar Lein s.v. bachell (b) ‘bay, creek, inlet’, but (a) ‘nook, angle’ and (c) ‘snare … clutch, grapple’ are also possible.
Raise your staff courageously,
beat the head of the broad stone tower;
45for the sake of my blessing19 dwg er fy mendith Gruffudd Nannau urges Mwrog to release the brothers in exchange for the praise which he gives to the saint in this poem, but [b]endith ‘blessing’ could also refer to Mwrog’s act in releasing them. deliver Ithel
from the towers yonder, most generous one;
likewise, enable [the people of] our land20 ynys Probably ‘land, vicinity’, cf. Gruffudd Nannau’s mention of Gwynedd in ll. 21n, 53n. But ‘island’ is also possible, namely either Anglesey (l. 54n) or Britain, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ynys.
to see Rhys [return] from Somerset.21 Gwlad yr Haf The narrative in ll. 41–8 seems to suggest that the castell ym machell môr ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ (l. 42n) was located somewhere in Somerset but, as discussed in the introductory notes, there are no suitable locations in that area. It is noted in GILlF 4.16n that there are very few references to Somerset in the poetry ‘except in a prophetic context’, with reference to two examples in the work of Dafydd Llwyd o Fathafarn. Although prophetic imagery is often obscure, it is in fact highly likely that both examples refer to the lineage of Henry Tudor, namely that his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was the daughter of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, see GDLl 16.15–16 Taer yw draig, tarw a dragwn, / Gwlad yr Haf gwylied ar hwn ‘Fierce is the dragon, bull and warrior / of Somerset, take heed of him’, 18.39–40 Rhos cochion a goronir / O Wlad yr Haf, baladr hir ‘Red roses from Somerset will be crowned, / long spear’. Other likely references to the same family connections are found in poems of praise by Dafydd Epynt and Lewys Morgannwg, see GDEp 12.19n; GLMorg 3.48n. If the Wars of the Roses played any part in the imprisonment of Ithel and Rhys (see the introductory notes), Gruffudd Nannau may be referring here to Somerset simply as a traditionally Lancastrian stronghold. If so, locating the ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ remains open to further discussion. 22 O Wlad yr Haf weled Rhys In terms of cynghanedd, weled Rys would be less problematic, but the ‘object’ of a verbal noun did not mutate, see TC 231–2. The regular devoicing (d > t before rh) seems to have been ignored here, cf. l. 5n.
When they come home, by heaven,23 Minnau a wnaf, myn y nef Like many other 15c. poets, Gruffudd Nannau apparently did not consider the proest rhyme in this l. to be a fault, see CD 255–7.
50I’ll place directly
their two figures24 eu dau lun Gruffudd Nannau may be vowing to bring Ithel and Rhys before Mwrog in the flesh, but it is more likely that he is intending to present a gift of wax to the saint in the form of the two brothers, cf. MWPSS 23.69 I’m llaw’n cau iawn mae llun cwyr ‘In my hand, enclosing recompense, there is a waxen image’ (Lewys Morgannwg to Mary of Pen-rhys, who seems to have presented Mary with an image of her in wax); GTP 34.15‒16 Llun march i Illtud Farchog / O gŵyr a rown, myn y grog ‘I’d give a waxen image of a horse to Illtud Farchog, by the rood!’ by your hand,25 gar dy law There may have been a statue or image of the saint in the church of Llanfwrog, cf. GLGC 129.63 myn delw Fwrog – wyn ‘by the image of holy Mwrog’.
and gold in exchange for achieving it.26 aur er ei gywiraw The pronoun probably refers in an unspecific way to the expected return of Ithel and Rhys, which is described in ll. 49–51. That is, Gruffudd Nannau will present Mwrog with a gift to ensure that he completes his side of the bargain. On the concept of making a deal with a saint, see Duffy 1992: 184–6.
You’ll have blessings in Uwch Conwy,27 Uwch Conwy Gwynedd to the west of river Conwy, see WATU 85.
and in Anglesey28 Môn Ithel and Rhys were descended from the family of Penmynydd on Anglesey, see the introductory notes. you’ll have more;
55you’ll have many prayers,
you’ll have praise for bringing them both.

1 Mwrog Sant On him, see LBS iii, 505–6.

2 Beuno On the saint, see LBS i, 208–21, Sims-Williams 2018:1–88.

3 Rhuthun The church of Llanfwrog is located on a hill not far west of Ruthin.

4 Duw a roes (pand da yr aeth?) The second half of the line has -d d-, which would usually become a voiceless t (cf. l. 3, where –g g- become a voiceless c), but the corresponding consonant in the first half of the line is d.

5 mawr Ei gywerthydd Gruffudd Nannau addresses Mwrog directly throughout the poem, therefore he is probably addressing God (who is named in l. 5) in the third person here rather than the saint.

6 yn unawr Not literally ‘in one hour’, but ‘in an instant’, cf. GGLl 15.28 I lawr ar unawr yna ‘Down in a second there’; MWPSS 24.34 Wrth unawr yr aeth yno ‘In one instant he went there’; GG.net 17.31 yn yr unawr ‘in one go’.

7 wythwaith The number of times may be significant but, without other references to the number eight in connection with the saints, ‘many times’ is probably the meaning here, see Henken 1991 180–1.

8 ni cherddai On the mutation, see TC 358.

9 ar dy waredydd Namely the slopes of the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gwaered ‘downward slope, descent’; cf. l. 23n.

10 gorsedd Possibly ‘abode’, but cf. the combination gorseddfa sant ‘saint’s shrine’, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. gorsedd1 1 (c), gorseddfa.

11 Dyn wyf â’i neges da ’n ôl Possibly ‘a man whose good mission is uncompleted’, but ‘a man whose good mission follows him’ is more likely, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ôl1 and the combination yn ôl (i), (xi).

12 Gwynedd The Vale of Clwyd (see l. 4n ⁠Rhuthun⁠) was part of Gwynedd Is Conwy (see WATU 85), but as Gruffudd Nannau was presumably from Nannau near Dolgellau, he may be referring here to his journey to Llanfwrog from Gwynedd Uwch Conwy.

13 fy nghalon ar fron fry It seems that the poet is referring to the hill on which the church of Llanfwrog is located near Ruthin, ‘on a hill-side on high’, cf. l. 17n. Another possibility is that [b]ron fry refers to the poet’s breast, that is ‘my heart and the breast above [it]’.

14 Gwayw hiraeth, gwae a’i hery Cf. GGGr 7.8 Gwe hirerw (gwae a’i hery!); GHS 24.27 Â gwayw hir gwae a’i hery. On ery, the third singular present form of the verb aros, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. arhosaf (d) ‘to endure (patiently), suffer’.

15 gŵyr ’y mron gwewyr The mutation is prevented by the break in the middle of the line, see TC 196.

16 Ll. 29–32 Ithel … / … / … / … Rhys On the two brothers, see the introductory notes. They are named again, in the same order, in ll. 45–8, which possibly suggests that Ithel was the eldest, cf. Guto’r Glyn’s poems of praise for the sons of Llywelyn ap Hwlcyn of Anglesey and the sons of Edward ap Dafydd of Bryncunallt, where both sets of brothers are probably named in order of their age, GG.net poems 63 and 103.

17 Ll. 33–4 Ifan … / Fychan Ieuan Fychan ab Ieuan of Pengwern (fl. c.1432–d. 1476/7), see GG.net 106. On this form of his name, see l. 33n (textual).

18 castell ym machell môr For a discussion on the castle’s location, see the introductory notes and l. 48n ⁠Gwlad yr Haf⁠. As for ym machell môr, the edition follows GPC Ar Lein s.v. bachell (b) ‘bay, creek, inlet’, but (a) ‘nook, angle’ and (c) ‘snare … clutch, grapple’ are also possible.

19 dwg er fy mendith Gruffudd Nannau urges Mwrog to release the brothers in exchange for the praise which he gives to the saint in this poem, but [b]endith ‘blessing’ could also refer to Mwrog’s act in releasing them.

20 ynys Probably ‘land, vicinity’, cf. Gruffudd Nannau’s mention of Gwynedd in ll. 21n, 53n. But ‘island’ is also possible, namely either Anglesey (l. 54n) or Britain, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. ynys.

21 Gwlad yr Haf The narrative in ll. 41–8 seems to suggest that the castell ym machell môr ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ (l. 42n) was located somewhere in Somerset but, as discussed in the introductory notes, there are no suitable locations in that area. It is noted in GILlF 4.16n that there are very few references to Somerset in the poetry ‘except in a prophetic context’, with reference to two examples in the work of Dafydd Llwyd o Fathafarn. Although prophetic imagery is often obscure, it is in fact highly likely that both examples refer to the lineage of Henry Tudor, namely that his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was the daughter of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, see GDLl 16.15–16 Taer yw draig, tarw a dragwn, / Gwlad yr Haf gwylied ar hwn ‘Fierce is the dragon, bull and warrior / of Somerset, take heed of him’, 18.39–40 Rhos cochion a goronir / O Wlad yr Haf, baladr hir ‘Red roses from Somerset will be crowned, / long spear’. Other likely references to the same family connections are found in poems of praise by Dafydd Epynt and Lewys Morgannwg, see GDEp 12.19n; GLMorg 3.48n. If the Wars of the Roses played any part in the imprisonment of Ithel and Rhys (see the introductory notes), Gruffudd Nannau may be referring here to Somerset simply as a traditionally Lancastrian stronghold. If so, locating the ‘castle in an inlet of sea’ remains open to further discussion.

22 O Wlad yr Haf weled Rhys In terms of cynghanedd, weled Rys would be less problematic, but the ‘object’ of a verbal noun did not mutate, see TC 231–2. The regular devoicing (d > t before rh) seems to have been ignored here, cf. l. 5n.

23 Minnau a wnaf, myn y nef Like many other 15c. poets, Gruffudd Nannau apparently did not consider the proest rhyme in this l. to be a fault, see CD 255–7.

24 eu dau lun Gruffudd Nannau may be vowing to bring Ithel and Rhys before Mwrog in the flesh, but it is more likely that he is intending to present a gift of wax to the saint in the form of the two brothers, cf. MWPSS 23.69 I’m llaw’n cau iawn mae llun cwyr ‘In my hand, enclosing recompense, there is a waxen image’ (Lewys Morgannwg to Mary of Pen-rhys, who seems to have presented Mary with an image of her in wax); GTP 34.15‒16 Llun march i Illtud Farchog / O gŵyr a rown, myn y grog ‘I’d give a waxen image of a horse to Illtud Farchog, by the rood!’

25 gar dy law There may have been a statue or image of the saint in the church of Llanfwrog, cf. GLGC 129.63 myn delw Fwrog – wyn ‘by the image of holy Mwrog’.

26 aur er ei gywiraw The pronoun probably refers in an unspecific way to the expected return of Ithel and Rhys, which is described in ll. 49–51. That is, Gruffudd Nannau will present Mwrog with a gift to ensure that he completes his side of the bargain. On the concept of making a deal with a saint, see Duffy 1992: 184–6.

27 Uwch Conwy Gwynedd to the west of river Conwy, see WATU 85.

28 Môn Ithel and Rhys were descended from the family of Penmynydd on Anglesey, see the introductory notes.

1 mae Cf. Gwyn 3 mawr, probably an emendment under the influence of the same word in the preceding l.

2 Gwrthiau – mawr Ei gywerthydd The edition tentatively follows Gwyn 3, whose reading seems to convey the meaning slightly better than the likely reading of X2 Y gwrthiau – mawr Ei g’werthydd.

3 Ll. 9–10. This couplet is in Gwyn 3 only. See further, ll. 13–14n.

4 ger bron ‘Before’. The edition tentatively follows Gwyn 3, contrast X2 o fewn ‘within’. If the reading in the source was o fewn, the oral tradition from which the text of Gwyn 3 probably stems may have caused it to change due to the fact that o fewn dy also appears in the next l., as it was unusual for the same combination of words to appear twice within the same couplet. If so, there may have been crevices in the saint’s altar at Llanfwrog in which one could place a hand or arm while asking for the saint’s blessing, or even spaces where one could kneel on hands and knees. However, it seems more likely that the reading in the source was ger bron, and that this l. was changed in X2 under the influenc of the next l.

5 Ll. 13–14. This couplet, as well as ll. 9–10, is in Gwyn 3 only. The couplet doubtless forms a pair with ll. 11–12 in terms of meaning, similar to the pairing of ll. 15–16 and 17–18. It is likely that the couplet was lost from X2 as the scribe jumped from Gwyddost at the beginning of l. 13 to the same word at the beginning of l. 15. Lines 9–10 are likewise accepted as genuine, but it is less obvious how they were lost from X2, except as they are part of a common list of miracles and therefore would have been easier to forget.

6 Gwnaethost dithau, gwn, wythwaith There seems to be signs of oral transmission in Gwyn 3 A gwneuthur mi a’i gwnn ŵyth-waith, where the sentence flows into the line from the previous couplet, cf. the manuscript’s reading for ll. 26–7. The text has a small connecting line under the words mi a’i (possibly in the hand of the scribe, Jaspar Gryffyth), in all likelihood in order to signify that these words contracted into a diphthong, but this seems highly unlikely. Furthermore, the loss of the previous couplet from X2 is best explained by the fact that the word Gwnaethost was found originally at the beginning of this l., see ll. 13‒14n.

7 I’r rhai Both C 3.37 and Gwyn 3 do not have the definite article. Note the use of the definite article in l. 11 Y deilliaid.

8 da This is not in Gwyn 3, where the cynghanedd is incomplete.

9 Hiraeth meibion maeth y medd C 3.37 has a six-syllable line without the definite article, and the definite article is also absent in Gwyn 3, which has Ond at the beginning of the l. It is possible that there was no definite article in the source and in X2, and that the problem with the length of the l. was solved by adding Ond in the oral tradition of Gwyn 3 and by adding the definite article in X3. The combination maeth and medd appears both with and without the definite article in the work of other poets, see GIRh 3.1 Hywel a wnaeth, mab maeth medd; GDEp 7.45 Rhoi a wnaeth, mab maeth y medd. The edition follows X3, as Gwyn 3 has another similar example of emending by carrying the meaning from one couplet to the next, see l. 15n.

10 Meddai Contrast a colloquial form in Gwyn 3 medde.

11 Ifan This form is found in every source, but the form Ieuan is used in the title of the edition in line with Guto’r Glyn’s poem to request reconciliation from Ieuan Fychan, see GG.net poem 106. In discussing the use of both Ifan and Ieuan in Guto’s work, it is noted that poets often used two forms of the same name, sometimes within the same poem, see ibid. 106.11n (textual). The cynghanedd in most of the examples in Guto’s poem is of no use in determining the correct form, but his use of Ieuan in one line of cynghanedd lusg wyrdro strongly suggests that he used that form in this line and, possibly, throughout the poem, see ibid. 106.37 Yr oedd gampau ar Ieuan. The cynghanedd does not aid the discussion in this line by Gruffudd Nannau nor in two poems by Maredudd ap Rhys in which he addresses Ieuan Fychan (contrary to what is stated in GMRh 6), see ibid. 10.18 Wneuthur o Ifan, lân lais, 21 A phe Ifan Fychan fai, 62 Yn hoyw am Ifan huawdl, 12.9 Ifan Fychan lân, haelioni – Ifor (the only exception is 10.55 Naw’ Duw rhag myned Ieuan, but Ifan with a vocalic -f- is possible here too).

12 Ll. 35‒6. In Gwyn 3, this couplet, in which the poet refers to the longing of cant o rianedd ‘a hundred maidens’ for the two brothers, appears after l. 28, where the poet describes the damaging effect of the brothers’ imprisonment on his own health. The edition follows the line order of X2, where l. 28 is followed by three couplets in which the poet continues to describe the effect of the imprisonment in the first person, after which he then refers the maidens’ response. This change in line order in Gwyn 3 probably reflects an oral tradition.

13 Och allel The reading in Gwyn 3 Er gallel leaves the cynghanedd incomplete.

14 ein Cf. Gwyn 3 iw, where there is an unanswered n in the first half of the line. The edition follows X2, in line with the belief that the text of Gwyn 3 stems from an oral tradition which occasionally emended the text.

15 Gwyddost lle mae dau flaenor It is unclear what was in X3: C 4.101 lle mae/n ddav flaenawor; LlGC 3049D lle mae n dav flaenor dav. The first is questionable in terms of meaning, and it is possible that the second is an attempt to correct it. But it is also possible that Huw Machno incorrectly divided maenddav, and that what was meant in his source was the much more convincing reading maen’ (maent ‘they are’). However, the fact that the edition’s reading is found in both C 3.37 and Gwyn 3 strongly suggests that this was the reading in X2 and in the source, and that the reading in X3 was an attempted emending of the weak cynghanedd lusg wyrdro by rhyming -aen in full. A full rhyme is certainly the norm in this type of cynghanedd (cf. GG.net 23.39 O rhoed Siarlmaen yn flaenawr), but two examples of incomplete rhyming both in a line of cynghanedd lusg wyrdro and in a line of regular cynghanedd lusg are noted in CD 177 footnote 1. The first is found in the earliest copy of a poem by Ieuan Brydydd Hir in manuscript Pen 53 (c.1484), rac cleddeu y … deheubarth⁠ (RWM i 408; a later reading is followed in the edition of GIBH 4.45 Rhag cleddau’r Deau diwarth), and the second is found in the earliest copy of a poem attributed to Dafydd ap Gwilym in C 4.330 (c.1574), Euraid ffriw, at Fair wiwgoeth (DGA 36.39; DGG2 XXVII.39). Unlike Gruffudd Nannau’s line, the end rhymes in both these lines are compound words and, therefore, a full rhyme involving the first consonant of the second element is unnecessary. Nonetheless, the edition tentatively follows the likely reading of the source.

16 Cyfod Cf. Huw Machno’s emendment in C 4.101 kvr ath, probably under the influence of the next line.

17 frig This is not in Gwyn 3, which leaves the cynghanedd incomplete.

18 Dwg er fy Cf. Gwyn 3 Tyn er dy. The reading in C 4.101 dvg is probably an error.

19 O’r Contrast X3 oi.

20 Unwaith, gwna help i’n ynys This l. in Gwyn 3 par vn-waith help i’r Ynys shows signs of having been reworked by an expert, cf. l. 50n.

21 O Wlad yr Haf Contrast Gwyn 3 i wlad yr haf. Williams (2001: 567 n413) suggested that the correct reading in Gwyn 3 was I’w wlad, yr haf, ‘i.e. a wish that Rhys should return to his land by summer’, which would get rid of the problem of locating the castle in Somerset, see l. 48n ⁠Gwlad yr Haf⁠ (explanatory). However, Somerset does not seem incompatible with the reference to a castle ym machell môr ‘in an inlet of sea’ (see l. 42n (explanatory)), even though the castle cannot be identified. The generally slap-dash nature of the text in Gwyn 3 suggests that i wlad yr haf⁠ is a corruption, possibly under the influence of the same preposition in the previous l., cf. l. 48n.

22 ddidro The edition follows X2, whose l. was technically irregular, either because the order of consonants was faulty or (most likely) because n was intentionally left unanswered. The regular cynghanedd in Gwyn 3 ddinidir, namely di-nidr ‘unhindered, untrammelled’ (see GPC Ar Lein s.v. dinidr), shown signs of having been reworked by an expert.

23 Rhoi eu dau lun gar dy law The cynghanedd in this l. was doubtless incorrect in the source, as shown by Gwyn 3 Roddi dau lun ar dy law and the likely reading of X2 Rhoddi’u dau lun gar dy law. Huw Machno’s emendment in C 4.101 rhoi i dav lvn ar dy law is convincing and was most likely the poet’s original reading, cf. l. 54n Ac ym Môn, ti a gai mwy. However, the edition keeps gar from X2 as it is more likely that g- would have been lost from the source than added subsequently.

24 Ac ym Môn, ti a gai mwy The edition follows Gwyn 3. The consonantal cynghanedd in X2 Ac ym Môn, cai a fo mwy is unconvincing, as it includes a vocalic f and does not answer -c in Ac with g, as was the custom, but with c (cf. l. 52 Ac aur er ei gywiraw). It seems that in C 4.101 ag ymon di a gei mwy Huw Machno has correctly emended the l., cf. l. 51n Rhoi eu dau lun gar dy law.

25 baderau The source was probably defective and had padereuau, a double plural form of pader with makes the cynghanedd incomplete, see GPC Ar Lein s.v. The cynghanedd lusg shows that the correct reading, as noticed by Huw Machno in C 4.101, is baderau. Furthermore, the underlining of the relevant letters in Gwyn 3 badreuau may have been done by the scribe, Jasper Gryffyth, probably in order to note the erroneous cynghanedd.