Select notes:
Translation:

1. Canu i Gadfan

edited by Ann Parry Owen

A long ode of praise to St Cadfan by Llywelyn Fardd, sung c.1150, probably in Tywyn, Meirionnydd.

[LlGC 6680B →]
I
Gwerthefin Dewin, Duw1 Gwerthefin Dewin, Duw Cf. the punctuation in HG Cref 84; the line thus divides into 5:4 syllables as is usual in the poet’s lines of cyhydedd nawban: see Metre and Cynghanedd. Contrast GLlF 1.1 (modern orthography) Gwerthefin Ddewin Dduw, which has the alliteration Dd- Dd- in the middle of the line, after mutating Dewin > Ddewin following the adjective gwerthefin. For the provection of dd > d following a final -n, see TC 26–7. For the phrase Duw i’m gwared, cf. GCBM i, 21.147. i’m gwared,
Gwyrthfawr 2 Gwyrthfawr LlGC 6680B gwerthuaỽr. It is suggested in G 750 that there was some confusion between gwerthfawr and gwyrthfawr in the manuscripts, and that some instances of gwerthuaỽr (ᚲ gwerth ‘value, benefit’) should be understood as gwyrthuawr (ᚲ gwyrth ‘miracle, virtue’). The confusion may derive from ambiguity in the exemplar’s orthography. On the pattern of DewiGB l. 217 Gwyrthfawr (ms. gwyrthuaỽr) briodawr, the form is understood as gwyrthfawr here; cf. GLlF 6.43 Dewin gwertheuin, gwerthuaỽr (modern orthography ‘gwyrthfawr’), but contrast ibid. 22.3 Duw gwerthfawr (modern orthography ‘gwerthfawr’), Gwerthefin. Briodawr, Gwawr gwaredred:
Wrth ei fodd 3 fodd LlGC 6680B uot (-t = ‘dd’, following the scribe’s usual orthography). Cf. G 69 where it is given as an instance of the combination wrth fodd ‘for the pleasure of’; contrast GLlF 1.3 where uot is taken as the mutated form of the verbal noun bod ‘to be’ (McKenna 2015: 273 ‘Since he is ruler to me’). i’m Rhwyf,1 Rhwyf ‘Lord’, cf. GPC s.v. rhwyf 1. Following GLlF 3.3 this is taken to refer to God, but it could also refer either to Cadfan or to a contemporary leader (be it the head of the church at Tywyn or a secular lord), in the sense that the inspiration God gives the poet will bring pleasure to that lord. a’m rhodded – awen,
Awdl deg dynghedfen, amgen ymgred.
5Amgyrwyf 4 amgyrwyf Listed in G 22 as the first person present indicative form of the transitive and intransitive verb amgyrfod ‘to desire’; it is transitive here, with caru canu as its object, cf. HG Cref 233; GLlF 1.5. (Contrast GPC where amgyrfod is defined exclusively as an intransitive verb.) GLlF 1.5 (modern orthography) presumes mutation of the object (Amgyrwyf garu); however, the manuscript’s non-mutated object is accepted here, cf. GLlLl 26.136 Y’th ganmaỽl ny gannwyf goruod ‘In praising you I do not acknowledge any excess’, where a non-mutated object, goruod, follows cannwyf (ᚲ canfod). caru,2 caru As is the case with the verb hoffi (modern Welsh ‘to like’), the poets sometimes used caru (modern Welsh ‘to love’) as a synonym for praise. For hoffi ‘to praise’, see Williams 1923–5: 39–41. canu canrhed,3 canrhed Cf. the sense ‘help, protection’ given in GPC. It is taken here to refer to the saint, or possibly a contemporary patron; cf. Cynddelw’s use of the noun for God in GCBM ii, 16.190 Canret cret, creuyd a’m rodỽy ‘The patron of the world, may he give me godliness’, and ibid. 17.96. However, the sense ‘society, company’ also given in GPC is possible, cf. GLlF 1.5; in McKenna 2015: 273 the line is translated as ‘I love the song of community’.
Can am rhoddes fy Rhên rheg 5 rheg LlGC 6680B rec, with r representing ‘r’ or ‘rh’ in the manuscript’s orthography. Although it is now usual for the object to undergo soft mutation where the pattern is verb + subject + object, there was no consistency in Middle Welsh, as is shown in TC 196. The same syntactical pattern is seen in ll. 7, 18, 19, 40, 61, 74, 123, and the orthography in ll. 18, 74 and 123 confirms that the non-mutated object was probably usual for Llywelyn Fardd. The non-mutated object has been retained where the orthography is of no help (i.e. in words beginning with d- or r- in the manuscript); the mid-line alliteration almost always supports this decision. eidduned, 6 The line is too long by a syllable and we would expect the extra syllable(s) to be in the second half of the line (see Metre and Cynghanedd). Can am rhoddes can be compressed into three syllables (Can’m rhoddes) so that the line subdivides into the standard 5:4 syllables. (For the vocalic form of the internal pronoun following can, see GMW 56.) However, am in l. 7 must count as a syllable, otherwise the mid-line break falls clumsily on dogn rather than on Dofydd.
Can am rhydd Dofydd dogn foddhäed – i’m rhan 7 As in the case of many a toddaid in this poem, the second half of the first line is too long by a syllable. There is usually an obvious contraction (e.g. l. 15 Duw ym > Duw ’m), but there is none here, unless foddhäed counts as two syllables for the line length and three for the rhyme.
I foli Cadfan, cedwyr nodded.4 cedwyr nodded There is a play in ll. 8–14 on the element cad- ‘battle’ in Cadfan’s name, and it is possible that it was this element that led to his being considered the patron saint of warriors in particular: see further the Introduction.
Cedwis gwir ei dir a’i deÿrnged,
10Cedwis gŵr arwr arwymp drefred;
Cedwis Duw urddas, yn ŵr ac yn was,
I fab Eneas,5 Eneas Cadfan’s lineage is given in ‘Bonedd y Saint’: Catuan sant m. Eneas ledewic o Lydaw , a Gwenn teirbron merch Emyr Llydaw y vamSt Cadfan … son of Eneas Ledewig from Llydaw (?Brittany), and Gwen of the three breasts his mother, the daughter of Emyr Llydaw’ (EWGT 57). See further the Introduction. eurwas fyged;
Cedwir6 cedwir It is understood as a compound adjective (ced + gwir) describing Cadfan (the nen ‘lord’) whose blessings are loyal to his followers. However, it is understood as an impersonal verb in GLlF 1.13, and the adjective is not listed in GPC. nen, fab Gwen,7 Gwen Gwen Teirbron, the mother of Cadfan and daughter of Emyr Llydaw, see n26(e). For her cult in Brittany, see Jones and Owen 2003: 47–8. a fad weled:8 a fad weled A reference to the sanctity of Cadfan (cf. DewiGB l. 210 Dewi mawr Mynyw, mad y’i gweled), or to the fact that whoever saw him was ‘fortunate’ (mad).
Cadwent nerthnawd nerth 8 nerth I follow GLlF 1.14; contrast HG Cref 84 uerth. It is difficult to be confident about the reading, as u and n are so similar in the manuscript. a’m canherthed!
15Poed canhorthwy Duw ym, 9 Duw ym By contracting > Duw ’m, the line subdives into the standard 5:5 syllables. Was the original reading Dwy, a variant form of Duw (see GPC s.v. duw 1)? This would give an internal rhyme with canhorthwy, and as Dwy alliterates with dyhudded, the line would contain cynghanedd sain. Similarly the cynghanedd would be strengthened by reading Dwy for Duw in l. 95 Moladwy un Duw, un diffyniad and l. 133 Ar a fynnwy Duw, nid egrygi dyhudded 10 dyhudded The initial consonant of LlGC 6680B dyhuted is ambiguous as d- can represent either ‘d’ or ‘dd’; GLlF 1.15 gives ddyhudded in modernized orthography, the noun mutating following ym ‘to me’, cf. GMB 27.107 Menhid ym gyrreiuyeint (ᚲ kyrreiuyeint). However, if the non-mutated form is retained, then we have the necessary alliteration in the middle of the line between Duw and dyhudded. For examples of retaining a non-mutated consonant following ym, cf. GMB 29.20 Wedy kymynnu ym kymhenrwyt; GBF 26.9 Goreu kyrchlam ym cyrchu ataỽ. – anian,
Ennysg ddysg ddiddan, wahan weithred,
I wneuthur llafur ni bo9 ni bo For ni bo, instead of the expected ni fo in a relative clause (if that is the correct interpretation), see G 67. lludded
Myn na llefais 11 llefais LlGC 6680B lleueir, which is accepted in HG Cref 84, without explanation. Lleueir seems to be the third person present indicative of llefaru ‘to speak’ (GMW 116); however, that doesn’t give good sense here, and the reading is emended, following GLlF 1.19n and G 464 s.v. eissywet, the line being one of a series containing a form of the verb llafasu (cf. ll. 18, 21, 22). trais trasglwy10 trasglwy A hapax form, explained in GLlF 1.18n as a variant of trawsgwydd / trawsglwydd, which is discussed in PKM 256–7; cf. GLlF 2.34 traỽsglỽyd uỽyhaf ‘the greatest undertaking’. For its range of meanings, see GPC s.v. trawsglwydd, trawsgwydd ‘plan, intention, aim, undertaking, provision’, c. It is taken here in combination with the verbal noun myned. Another possibility, following GLlF, would be to combine it with trais: ‘intention of violence’. fyned,
Myn na llefais dyn dwyn 12 llefais dyn dwyn GLlF 1.61 reads ddwyn here, but the non-mutated form gives mid-line alliteration with dyn (cynghanedd braidd gyffwrdd). See n5(t) on rheg. eisiwed – o’r llan
20Ger glan glas dylan 13 glas dylan If there is provection of dd > d here following a final -s (cf. nos dda > nos da), the line forms cynghanedd sain. o’i dylyed,
Men na llefesir dir o’i daered,11 A difficult line to translate, although the meaning is fairly clear. Dir is understood as the noun, ‘force’, c., and for daered, ‘(fixed) legal due, tax, tribute, impost; income … bequest to the church’, c., see GPC s.v. daered 1.
Men y llafasaf oes ddarymred.
Tair allawr gwyrthfawr gwyrthau glywed12 gwyrthau glywed The verbal noun (clywed) is preceded by its object (gwyrthau), the combination modifying tair allawr gwyrthfawr. The line is translated loosely. For the lack of mutation in the adjective, gwyrthfawr, following a numeral + feminine noun, see TC 64–5. – ysydd 14 ysydd LlGC 6680B yssy; the final dd can be confidently restored, as the gair cyrch rhymes regularly with the fifth syllable in the next line in couplets of toddaid in this poem (ysydd / … gorwydd). The verb could be contracted to sydd here, to save a syllable, as also in l. 95 and cf. l. 91 (where reading ’sy instead of ysy would again give the standard number of syllables).
Rhwng môr a gorwydd a gwrdd lanwed:13 gwrdd lanwed Probably a reference to the powerful tide in the Dysynni estuary, which would have been closer to Tywyn church in the Middle Ages, before the Corbet family of Ynysymaengwyn drained much of the saltmarsh in the 18th century; see Gover 2015: 30, ‘It was not until the draining of the marshes in the 18th century that the fields we see now to the north of the church were created. In the 12th century the whole area would have been covered at high tide … The church on its small mound would have towered above it’; cf. n64(e), n66(e).
25Allawr Fair o’r Pair, hygrair hygred;
Allawr Bedr i’w fedr yd yr folhed; 15 yd yr folhed LlGC 6680B ydyruolhed; cf. l. 36 yd yr lunied (LlGC 6680B ydyrlunhyed). For these two verbal forms, and the two preverbal particles preceding them, see the full discussion in McKenna 1990: 267–72. Here, both verbs are described as impersonal imperfect subjunctive forms with the preverbal particle yr (ᚲ ry) giving the one, l. 26, an ‘optative’ meaning and the other, l. 36, a pluperfect meaning, see ibid. 270. The subjunctive mood explains the -h- at the end of the verbal stems in the manuscript, and this is retained in the edition (contrast GLlF), as it presumably affected the pronunciation (given that it was usual for the h to cause provection in verbal stems that ended in voiced consonants, see GMW 128–9).
A’r drydedd allawr14 a’r drydedd allawr Cadfan’s altar, although he is not named. a anllofed – o nef,
Gwyn ei fyd ei thref15 gwyn ei fyd ei thref As tref is almost exclusively a feminine noun (see GPC), we would expect gwyn ei byd here, as in LlDC 15.1 Gwin y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy ‘Blessed is the birch tree in the Wye Valley’. However, for gwyn ei fyd meaning ‘blessed’, the pronoun ei having lost its force, see G 743 and cf. GLlG 3.15–16 Gwyn ei fyd feirdd byd / Gwyn ei fyd anant ‘Blessed are the poets of the world … / Blessed are the minstrels’. gan ei thrwydded.
Gwyn ei fyd a fydd o foddhäed
30Men y trig gwledig gwlad Ednywed;16 gwlad Ednywed Cf. GLlF 1.30n where this is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed ab Einudd, a descendant of Meirion Meirionnydd, its founder, see EWGT 108; WCD s.n. Ednyfed ab Einudd. The poets often refer to a region or land as belonging to its supposed founder (cf. Cynddelw’s description of Powys, GCBM i, 15.14 Gwlad Urochfael Ysgithraỽc ‘The land of Brochfael Ysgithrog’); however, no other reference to Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed has been found, nor any reference in the poetry to Ednyfed ab Einudd. The suggestion in G 439 that ednywed should be interpreted as a common noun ‘satisfaction, desire’ cannot be disregarded (cf. HG Cref 85); however, ednywed is not included in GPC. 16 Ednywed LlGC 6680B ednywed; contrast GLlF 1.30 where the manuscript reading is emended > Ednyued ‘Ednyfed’. As ‘w’ and ‘f’ were much closer phonetically in Middle Welsh than they are today, the manuscript form has been retained in this edition. It is unfortunate that the word comes at the end of the line, outside the cynghanedd.
Gwyn ei fyd ei fryd a fawrhäed – yndi,17 If the natural word order has been changed, we could translate ‘blessed is he whose mind has been honoured therein’. 17 yndi LlGC 6680B yndi; third person singular of the preposition yn, cf. ll. 103, 150 and see Sims-Williams 2013: 46 et passim. The form is often proved in later poetry by cynghanedd, e.g. GHDafi 36.30 Ni’m edwyn undyn yndi ‘Not a single man knows me therein’. (The orthography does not help here, as yndi could also represent ‘ynddi’, as the scribe regularly used d for ‘dd’ following n, cf. kyndelỽ ‘Cynddelw’, c.)
Fal eglwys Dewi18 eglwys Dewi As noted in GLlF 1.32n, we cannot be certain which of St David’s churches the poet has in mind here – St Davids, Llanddewibrefi or another Llanddewi. However, the suggestion implicit here is that David’s church was magnificent, and that Cadfan’s church resembled it. 18 eglwys Dewi There is provection of Dd > D following a final -s, giving alliteration between Dewi and digoned. y’i digoned:
Eglwys gadr Gadfan, gan gynweled,
Eglwys wen wyngalch falch wynhäed,19 Cf. the famous description in Historia Gruffudd ap Cynan of the newly built churches in Gwynedd sparkling like stars during the reign of Gruffudd ap Cynan (d. 1137): HGK 30.17–18 echtywynygu a wnei Wynedd yna o eglwysseu kalcheit, fal y ffurfafen o’r syr ‘then Gwynedd gleamed because of its whitewashed churches, like the firmament with stars’. 19 wyngalch falch wynhäed LlGC 6680B wyngalch wynhaed. The addition of falch, following GPC s.v. gwynhaed, gives a regular metrical line. Another possibility would be to add the relative pronoun (a wynhäed), following HG Cref 234.
35Eglwys ffydd a chrefydd a chred – a chymun
Fal wrth20 wrth Its exact meaning is unclear; however, see GPC s.v. wrth under (2), ‘because of’, ‘in answer to’, ‘for’, ‘on behalf of’, c. Dduw ei 20 ei LlGC 6680B eu, an error for y or e (as the poet is referring to God here); contrast GLlF 1.36 where the manuscript reading is given as cu. hun yd yr lunhied! 21 yd yr lunhied See n15(t).

II
Lluniwys 22 Lluniwys If this were emended to lluniws, it would make internal rhyme with Ddëws, giving a line of cynghanedd sain (Lluniws i Ddëws, ddewis ), as is common in the first line of toddaid in this poem; cf. n42(t) on rhannwys. Did the poet originally have the ending -ws and was it changed to -wys when the poem was copied? For the development and distribution of the preterite endings -wys/-ws in Middle Welsh, see Rodway 2013: 128–53. ei Ddëws ddewis edrydd 23 edrydd LlGC 6680B edryd; for another example of final -d for ‘dd’ in this poem, cf. n59(t) rhagddudd (ms. racdud), which is proved by the end-rhyme. It is likely that the source text had -d for ‘dd’. – iddaw
Pan ddoeth o Lydaw ar lydw21 ar lydw The preposition ar ‘upon, over’, is taken with GLlF 1.37 to refer to the tradition that Cadfan had come to Tywyn from Brittany, as the head of a company of saints (who were mostly his cousins); see the Introduction. bedydd.
Bendigedig fab ni faeth cerydd,22 ni faeth cerydd The third person singular preterite form maeth also takes a non-mutated object in GDB 3.21 Ny maeth bygylaeth ‘He did not foster cowardice’; however, by the 14th century, the soft mutation of the object was more usual, cf. GGMD ii, 1.167 ni faeth gaeth gythrudd ‘he did not foster grievous distress’.
40Ys bendico Duw dwywawl 24 dwywawl The non-mutated object is retained here (⁠ dwywawl weinydd), which gives the expected mid-line alliteration (⁠ Duw dwywawl); see n5(t) on rheg. weinydd:
Bendith naw radd nef23 naw radd nef The nine orders of angels in heaven, see GPC s.v. nawradd and GP 199. yn ei drefydd,
Bendigedig fro fraint gynhewydd.24 cynhewydd This is the only example of the word outside a dictionary. Davies 1632: s.v. gives the meaning ‘qui tacet, taciturnus’, deriving it from the verb cynhewi (ᚲ tewi) ‘to silence’, cf. GPC ‘?silencer; silent person’. Cf. also G 250 where it is suggested that it could be a derivative of tew ‘fat’. However, it is tentatively taken to be a description of Cadfan here, as one who ‘pacifies’ his people, bringing them peace of mind.
Bendigaid a daith o’i gyweithydd25 Bendigaid a daith o’i gyweithydd A reference to the tradition that Cadfan came to Wales from Brittany, in charge of a group of saints, see n21(e) and the Introduction. For o’i ‘to his’, see GMW 53.
Pan ddoeth i’r cyfoeth, beunoeth beunydd,
45Pan ddyfu chwant syllu ar esillydd – Ymer26 esillydd – Ymer A description of Cadfan as a descendant (esillydd) of his grandfather, Emyr Llydaw, the father of his mother, Gwen Teirbron: see n7(e). It has been shown that ymyr, emyr was originally a common noun (from the Latin imperium or imperator) and that emyr (in the combination emyr Llydaw) was later misinterpreted as a personal name (Lloyd-Jones 1941–4: 34–6).
Aber Menwenfer,27 Aber Menwenfer Or possibly Aber Menwenwer (cf. LlGC 6680B aber menwener, the having been added by the main scribe). HG Cref 234 suggests emending menwener > menver, and refers to Minwear in Narberth, Pembrokeshire, which had forms such as Minuer and Mynwer in the Middle Ages; see further Charles 1992: 526–7 where it is suggested that the elements could be min ‘edge’ + gwern ‘alder-swamp’. However, this reading would not give a rhyme in the fifth syllable with the gair cyrch in l. 45 (a pattern that is very regular throughout this poem). Aber Menwenỽer is also taken to be a place-name in GLlF 1.46, without explanation, but it is listed as a common noun in G 5. The poet is probably referring to the estuary of the Dysynni – cf. Lewis 2005: 50–1 (and see ibid. footnote 29) – but the name is unknown and nothing similar has been found in Archif MR. As noted above, n13(e), the Dysynni estuary was closer to Tywyn in the Middle Ages; was the name lost as the location of the estuary changed?
This seems to be an interesting example of the appreciation of landscape in the Middle Ages. St Tydecho, who had come with Cadfan from Brittany, had quite a different experience; after settling for a while in Llandudoch, he became fed up of the sea (Ni charai / Y môr llwyd ‘he did not like the grey sea’), and moved inland to Mawddwy: gw. TydechoDLl ll. 7–18. We get the impression that there were many stories about Cadfan and his company of saints in the Middle Ages, but only vague references have survived the passage of time.
ucher echwydd. 25 LlGC 6680B pan dyfu chwant syllu / ar essillyt. ymher aber menwener ucher echwyt. Two problematic lines. They are arranged here as lines of toddaid, cf. GLlF 3.45–6; contrast HG Cref 85 where they are arranged as two lines of cyhydedd nawban (with ymher thus placed at the beginning of l. 46). The arguments are summarized in GLlF 3.45–6n. Line 45, as it now stands, has 12 syllables and is longer than the usual 10 or 11 syllables in this poem; also unexpected is the fact that the second rhyme of the cynghanedd sain in l. 45 (syllu) falls on the sixth, rather than on the fifth syllable. The line would be more regular if dyfu were emended to fu (without affecting the meaning), or if chwant were deleted, following G 463, but neither would improve the reading and thus the toddaid is accepted as it is.

Uchelwawd 26 Uchelwawd LlGC 6680B uchel waỽd; cf. l. 48 Uchelfardd (ms. ucheluart) and l. 49 Uchelwlad (ms. uchelwlad). It is often difficult to assess the significance of spaces, or their absence, in the manuscript but reading Uchelwawd gives initial correspondence with l. 48 and a similar pattern of beats in the line. yw hon i Feirionnydd,
Uchelfardd a’i pryd fegys prydydd:28 Uchelfardd a’i pryd fegys prydydd The verb pryd, verbal noun prydu, has the meaning ‘to compose, to fashion’ here, and its object is Uchelwawd (l. 47). Is Llywelyn Fardd suggesting that he himself was not a prydydd, i.e. by saying that he is composing ‘like a master-poet’ (fegys prydydd)? Remember that he was called Llywelyn Fardd ; contrast the name of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr. The line contains cynghanedd draws wreiddgoll, with Uchelfardd, the word not included in the cynghanedd, alliterating and forming cymeriad with the first word in ll. 47 and 49.
Uchelwlad Gadfan myn yd gydfydd
50Breswyl29 preswyl The adjective suggests that the Gospel Book (Efengyl) was always at hand (GPC ‘ready, to hand’). The ‘humble lord’ (ufyl ofydd) could refer either to Cadfan or the contemporary head of the church – the ambiguity is probably deliberate. Efengyl 27 Breswyl Efengyl LlGC 6680B bresswyl uchel euengyl, with a light deletion line through uchel (the scribe probably intending to rubricate the line later when he had access to red ink, cf. the heavy red deletion line through a uo, f. 20r, l. 12). Lines 49–50 are taken to be a couplet of cyhydedd naw ban; contrast GLlF where uchel is added and the couplet is arranged as a toddaid: Uchelwlad Gaduann mynd yd gyduyt bresswyl / Uchel euegyl uỽyl ouyt (cf. HG Cref 85); it is argued there that placing bresswyl as gair cyrch at the end of l. 49 and uchel at the beginning of l. 50 not only gives better sense but also provides alliteration with the beginning of the adjacent lines (cymeriad). However, this is rejected as the gair cyrch rhymes consistently with the fifth syllable in the following line in the toddeidiau of this poem, and breswyl (which rhymes as -ŵyl) does not rhyme correctly with Efengyl. Also the poet does not consistently sustain cymeriad in the second line of toddaid in this poem. ufyl ofydd
A’r fagl30 Efengyl … / A’r fagl The two relics, a book of Gospels and a crosier, were presumably kept at the church in Tywyn; both were believed to have special powers as they had once belonged to Cadfan. A saint’s crozier and Gospel Book are named together in the law books as items of particular significance in relation to agreeing the boundaries of territories, rights over land, and so on: cf. Pryce 1993: 209 (who discusses their importance in the law books), ‘The crosier and gospel book will almost certainly have been relics, representing the authority of the church’s founding saint who had reputedly owned them. Originally, they may have been carried around the boundaries.’ The two contending sides would swear an oath upon the relics, and it is even possible, as Pryce suggests, that details about the boundaries of lands given to the church would be added into the Gospel Book over the centuries, as in the case of the glosses added to the Lichfield Gospels which give details regarding the rights of Teilo’s churches in Llandaf and Llandeilo. For the importance of relics in oath-taking, see ibid. 41–3. ferth werthfawr wyrthau newydd
A ludd i’r gelyn ladd ei gilydd,31 A ludd i’r gelyn ladd ei gilydd Cadfan’s crozier would restore peace between enemies as would Cyrwen, Padarn’s crozier, see Williams 1941–2: 70–1.
A’i harglwydd gwladlwydd, gwlad lewenydd,
A wna ei noddfa32 noddfa For the significance of churches’ nawdd (‘sanctuary’) and braint (‘privilege’) in the Middle Ages, cf. Jones and Owen 2003: 55, ‘Both braint and nawdd are native legal concepts developed in a church context from the field of secular law where braint means the right of enjoying full legal status or privilege. In the case of a church, it is a privilege generally associated with royal grant or protection.’ In the 12th century Gerald of Wales emphasized the Welshman’s respect for the saints’ sanctuaries: ‘The more important churches … offer sanctuary for as far as the cattle go to feed in the morning and can return at evening’, Thorpe 1978: 254. The ‘lord who brings prosperity to his land’ [arglwydd gwladlwydd of the previous line], who defends the church’s sanctuary and protection, is probably Hywel ab Owain, see the Introduction. yn 28 noddfa yn This can be contracted to noddfa’n as the second half of the line is too long by a syllable; but at the same time the -a makes internal rhyme with dda for cynghanedd sain. dda ddiwenydd.
55Ail Osfran33 Osfran An unknown hero, possibly remembered for his military prowess. Was he the father of the warrior killed at the battle of Camlan, according to the Stanzas of the Graves, LlDC 18.36 Bet mab ossvran yg camlan ‘The grave of the son of Osfran at Camlan’? It is possible that GGMD i, 4.85 rhuthr osbran refers to the military prowess of the same Osbran or Osfran, and should be translated as ‘the onslaught of Osbran’. Llywelyn Fardd is probably praising the secular lord Hywel ab Owain (see the Introduction) in ll. 53–6, before returning in l. 57 to praise Abbot Morfran. gynnan aeswan oswydd,
Aesawr hael orwawr 29 gorwawr LlGC 6680B or|waỽr. This is understood here as a noun ‘splendid lord’ (ᚲ gor- + gwawr) following GLlF 1.56. But if w = ‘f’, it could be read as [g]orfawr ‘great’; cf. G 564’s first suggestion. It could be argued that orfawr would give better alliteration in the cynghanedd sain with orfydd, but the Middle Welsh w was closer to the modern f than to the modern w. ar hawl orfydd, 30 ar hawl orfydd LlGC 6680B ar haỽl oruyt. In G 564 where the preposition ar is taken with the verb goruyt (i.e. gorfod ar). Another possibility would be to read arhaỽl orfydd as in GLlF 1.56, following G’s second suggestion. On arhawl, used in the Welsh Laws for ‘additional claim’ or ‘counter-claim’, see GPC.
A’i habad rhoddiad, 31 rhoddiad As r can represent either ‘rh’ or ‘r’ in LlGC 6680B, it is unclear how to modernize the orthography of the three words in this line that begin with r- in the manuscript. Abad rhoddiad is understood as a compound of two nouns of equal status, neither modifying the other, and therefore both in their non-mutated states, see TC 125; abad roddiad ‘a giver [who is an] abbot’ is also possible. rhad rhyddyrydd, 32 rhyddyrydd LlGC 6680B ry dyryt; cf. l. 59 ry dylyf, l. 61 ry goruc but l. 58 rydyrann. Rhy is understood as a preverbal particle and is therefore joined to the following verb in every instance here. However, not only is the nature of the manuscript r- a problem (it may represent a mutated ‘r’, rhad (a) ryddyrydd, or more likely a non-mutated ‘rh’, with the verb retaining a non-mutated consonant following its object, as in GMB 10.30 Callonn klywaf yn llosgi ‘I feel my heart burning’), but the nature of the consonant following r(h)y- is also unclear, especially in instances such as ll. 57, 58, 59 where the orthography is of no assistance (i.e. d- = ‘d’ or ‘dd’ in LlGC 6680B).
TC 365–6 suggests that c, p, t would originally take spirant mutation following rhy in a non-relative clause, with the other consonants retaining their non-mutated forms; however, c, p, t, along with the other consonants, would undergo soft mutation in relative clauses. With time, as in sentences containing the negative ni, soft mutation became usual in both main and relative clauses.
Tentatively, it is presumed that the d in the verbal stems in ll. 57, 58, 59 represents a mutated ‘dd’ (although it could be argued that main-clause rhydylif should have a non-mutated consonant that would alliterate with rhod at the beginning of the following line, see n33(t)). There is further uncertainty regarding verbal stems that begin with g-, as noted in TC 365–6 (cf. GMB 3.35n on ry gated), as the manuscript g could represent an earlier lenited form of g in Old Welsh. GLlF 1.61 explains the manuscript rygoruc here by suggesting that ry is a contraction of the preverbal particle and an infixed pronoun: rhy-i-gorug.

Atan rhyddyran o’i lan luosydd:
Rhyddylif cynnif can fodd Dofydd,
60Rhod 33 rhod Cf. LlGC 6680B rod; contrast GLlF 1.60 where it is emended to rot ‘rhodd’. The feminine noun rhod ‘a round shield’ gives good sense here, following the reference in the previous line to Morfran’s military exploits. See GPC s.v. rhod 1 (c). gynnan Forfran,34 Morfran The abbot of Tywyn church and probably the patron of this poem; see the Introduction. rhwysg diddan dydd.35 dydd If it is correct to assume that ll. 59–60 praise Morfran’s military prowess and excellent defending skills (symbolized by his rhod, his round shield), then dydd can be understood here to mean ‘encounter, battle’, see GPC s.v. dydd 2(c), with diddan perhaps referring to triumph in victory. Could the poet be referring here to Morfran’s defence of Cynfael Castle in 1147 against the attack by Hywel ab Owain and his brother Cynan? See further the Introduction. 34 diddan dydd LlGC 6680B dydandyt; it is taken as two separate words, following HG Cref 86 and GLlF, the line thus forming cynghanedd sain deirodl, a type of cynghanedd that occurs fairly frequently in this poem; cf. ll. 25, 44, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 70, c. and especially l. 102 whose internal rhymes fall on the same 3:5:8 syllables. The cynghanedd also suggests retaining the non-mutated dydd following the adjective diddan; for -n dd- > -n d-, see TC 26–7.
Rhygorug Duw dau henefydd36 dau henefydd Cadfan and Abbot Morfran? Or Morfran and another contemporary leader of the church? – o’i phlaid,
Effeiriaid hynaid hynaws ysydd:
Ni ddeffryd ei fod 35 fod LlGC 6680B uot, which would give ‘fodd’ according to the scribe’s usual orthography; hence ll. 63–4 can be translated ‘the blessed valley of unwavering faith does not trouble his wishes’. However, as that would give a line with no alliteration or cynghanedd, the mutated form of the verbal noun bod is read here, as in GLlF 1.63n. This gives a llusg rhyme with glodrydd, and a type of cynghanedd that would later be rejected as the r following the main accent in the second rhyme (glodrydd) does not occur in the first rhyme (fod), see CD 175. a dan glodrydd
Ddyffrynt37 dyffrynt Tywyn itself is not situated in a valley, but the Dysynni valley is to the north-east and Cwm Maethon and many other valleys are to the south-east. diletgynt diletgrefydd:
65Achadw crog38 crog Probably a reference to a rood in Tywyn church, cf. GLlF 1.65n. Contrast the sense ‘gallows’ given in Pryce 1985: 166 where it is suggested that the items named in ll. 65–6 are concerned with the rights and territory of Tywyn, and that a reference to the gallows would convey the legal authority to bring judgement upon thieves and punish them by hanging. However, crog here is taken with côr (also in l. 65) to refer to a feature within the church itself. a ched a choedydd – a chôr
A môr 36 a chôr / A môr LlGC 6680B achor mor. Cf. GLlF where ll. 65–6 are arranged as a toddaid rather than a couplet of cyhydedd nawban, and where a is added at the beginning of l. 66 to ensure that the fifth syllable (arfor) rhymes with the gair cyrch (a chôr) in the previous line, this being the regular pattern throughout the poem. ac arfor a gorfynydd.

III
Mor elw fy nghynnelw39 cynnelw ‘Support’ or ‘succour, provision’, c., see GPC. It is used occasionally by the poets in the context of their relationship with their patron, but it is not always clear whether it refers to support provided by the patron or for him; cf. DewiGB n2(e) on Cynnelw o Ddewi. The ambiguity is retained here in the translation. With this line, cf. in particular GCBM ii, 2.54 Kyndelỽ a’e kynnhelỽ yn y kynnhor ‘Cynddelw supports him in the van of battle’ (to Owain Gwynedd). Llywelyn Fardd and Cynddelw are probably both referring to their place at the forefront of the court, reflecting their high status as poets. yng nghynnor – lliaws,
Yn llwybr maws achaws uchel dymor.40 uchel dymor Llywelyn is probably referring to an important feast in the church calendar, when he would have been treated with special esteem by the head of the church.
Uchel log yw hon rhag bron breisgior,
70Uchel lan41 Uchel log … / Uchel lan The poet is possibly differentiating between llog (ᚲ Latin locus ‘place’), in the sense of the church including its lands (cf. TysilioCBM n69(e)), and llan, namely the church building itself and the cemetery which would have been enclosed by a fence or a wall. The adjective uchel probably describes the church’s prominence in the landscape, see n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn; however, it could also describe its ‘high’ status. Gadfan ger glan glas fôr. 37 glas fôr LlGC 6680B glas uor. The manuscript is followed here, cf. GLlF 1.70; but glasfor is also possible, cf. HG Cref 86 and GPC.
Ni chollir o’i thir nac o’i thewdor – annedd
Troedfedd er dyhedd, dihawdd hepgor!
Ni llefais neb trais tros ei hysgor, 38 ei hysgor LlGC 6680B y ysgor. Often the h- added to a noun beginning with a vowel after the third singular feminine pronoun ei was often not shown in LlGC 6680B; it is restored here, cf. l. 86.
Ni chymwyll neb twyll42 ni chymwyll neb twyll Neb ‘anyone’ is the subject of the verb, and twyll is its object. (On the lack of mutation in the object, see n5(t) on rheg.) Neb twyll could also be taken together (‘any deceit’) and understood as the subject of the verb: ‘No deceit contemplates penetrating its door’. tyllu ei dôr;
75Ni chymu rhwyf llu â llaw gyngor43 llaw gyngor It could also be an adjectival compound, with a nominal force, ‘one whose advice is bad’, cf. GLlF 1.75; McKenna 2015: 276 translates ‘The lord of the host has not tolerated cowardice [= llaw gyngor] in conflict’. – yng ngawr
(Ni chymyrth aesawr yr un eisior44 yr un eisior Do ll. 76–7 refer to Cadfan whilst ll. 75, 78–80 refer to Abbot Morfran? (On the abbot’s defence of his territory, see the Introduction.) The poet explains in ll. 76–7 that Cadfan, unlike the abbot, did not need any weapons or words of fury, because, as we saw in ll. 51–2, his crozier ensured peace. 39 eisior LlGC 6680B eisg yor with a dot under the g signifying deletion and y added above, all by hand alpha. The letters g and y were clearly similar in the exemplar.
Na cham leferydd ar lid Echdor45 Echdor The classical hero Hector son of Priam, who was renowned for his military strength, see TYP 337–8.),
Ni chablwyd ysgwyd ar ysgwydd iôr:
Ni chablaf fy naf yn ei 40 yn ei The second half of the line is too long by a syllable and it is likely that yn ei should be contracted > ’n ei. achor – faran,
80Bangeibr46 bangeibr A word also used by Gwynfardd Brycheiniog to describe high-status churches, see DewiGB n58(e) s.v. Meiddrym. gadw47 cadw The verbal noun in the sense ‘to defend’, cf. G 91. The personal name Cadfan mutates as it depends on the feminine noun bangeibr. Such loose compounds containing verbal nouns are often used as participles in the poetry (as here) or pronominally (‘the defender of Cadfan’s great church’): see Parry Owen 2003: 248–9; Lloyd 1933–5: 16–22. Contrast GLlF 1.80 where cadw is understood as a noun meaning ‘flock’ (McKenna 2015: 277 ‘The lofty church of Cadfan’s flock’). As cadw seems to be a masculine noun only in that sense (see GPC s.v. cadw 1, with examples from the 14th century onwards) we would not expect the mutated Gadfan. Gadfan fegis Bangor.48 Bangor Tywyn church belonged to the diocese of Bangor, and the poet is probably comparing the size and status of Cadfan’s church to that of the great cathedral church in Arfon. It is suggested in GLlF 1.80n that Llywelyn Fardd may even be claiming Tywyn’s indepedence from Bangor, at a time when this ancient mother church would have lost some of its status following the creation of the diocese earlier in the century, see Gresham 1985–9: 191–2.
Ei chreiriau banglau ban glywhitor,49 ban glywhitor For the archaic verbal form clywhitor, see n41(t). With the combination ban glywhitor, cf. especially GCBM ii, 2.20 cleu clywitor ‘is clearly heard’ (although there is no mutation in that instance). 41 glywhitor LlGC 6680B glywhitor. An old impersonal present indicative form, see GMW 120–1 where the -h- that is occasionally found before the ending is explained as an ‘analogical -h-’; cf. l. 83 gwelhator, ms. gwelhator. For the form, see further Rodway 2013: 90–1.
Ei cherdd, ei chynrain, ei main marmor;
Ei gwyrthiau golau gwelhator – beunydd,
Ei gwerthfawr edrydd edrychator,50 edrychator For edrych ‘to visit’ see GPC s.v. edrychaf 1(b), and for the archaic ending -ator cf. n41(t) on clywhitor. The poet is praising Tywyn church as the destination of pilgrims who were attracted by its relics and miracles.
85Ei gorthir, ei gwir yn ei goror,51 ei gwir yn ei goror Yn is taken to mean ‘within’ here, with the poet referring to the legal privileges enjoyed by those who dwelt within the boundary (goror) of Cadfan’s sanctuary. However, if yn ei goror is translated as ‘in/at its boundary’, the phrase could refer to the practice of carrying a saint’s relics around the church boundaries, confirming those boundaries by swearing an oath on the relics, see Pryce 1993: 209n28.
Ei chlod, ei harfod yn ei harfor.

IV
Mor iawn ym o’m dawn ac o’m dirnad – dedwydd
Goffäu dofydd52 dofydd This is understood as a reference to a secular lord (the abbot?) who shared his horses with the poet (ll. 89–90), cf. GLlF 1.88; however, it is taken to refer to God in HG Cref 86 (if that’s the implication of the capital letter in Dofydd) and G 385 notes that its use for secular lords is uncommon. In favour of taking dofydd to refer to God is the fact that Llywelyn Fardd would be naming God first, Jesus secondly (l. 91), then Cadfan (l. 92), in the order we would expect. However, it is difficult to explain the gift of the horses (ll. 88–9) if it is God that is named in l. 88, unless we understand that they were a gift from Morfran through the will of God. o’m newydd nad,
Can rhoddes ym rhan feirch can cynwad,53 cynwad A hapax form, which seems to be a combination of cyn ‘before’ + gwad ‘denial’. It is not included in GPC but G 262 suggests meanings such as ‘denied, refused’, ‘valuable’ or even ‘refusing to concede the lead, swift’. The latter meaning is adopted tentatively here, but possible also is GLlF ‘[m]eirch gwyn a nacesid o’r blaen’ (‘steeds which had previously been denied’) or even McKenna 2015: 277 (for the whole line) ‘Since he gave me a share of castoff white horses’.
90Can am coffäwys pan rhannwys 42 rhannwys LlGC 6680B rannỽs. The line probably has cynghanedd sain, as l. 89, and so the reading is emended to provide an internal rhyme with coffäwys. But, as noted in HG Cref 235, it is possible that it is coffäwys that should be emended, to give coffäws rhannws. Similarly lluniwys, l. 37, could be emended to lluniws to provide an internal rhyme with Dëws (n22(t)), but the manuscript form is retained there as the line already has mid-line alliteration. For the non-mutated object that follows verbs terminating in -ws, -wys, see TC 189, and for the provection of r- > rh- following pan, see ibid. 161. rhad.
Coffäu Iesu ysy 43 ysy The abbreviated ’sy would give the standard five syllables in the second half of this first line of toddaid, cf. n14(t). bwyllad – i’m ban
A moli Cadfan gan Ei ganiad;
Molawd a ddyrllydd cedwidydd cad:
Iawn yw moli rhi a fo rhoddiad.
95Moladwy un Duw, 44 Duw Cf. LlGC 6680B duỽ. The variant form Dwy would give cynghanedd sain in the line, cf. n9(t). un diffyniad – ysydd,
Ym Meirionnydd rydd, rodd gyngwastad:54 rhodd gyngwastad It is understood as a description of Meirionnydd (l. 96), but it could also be a description of God, whose generosity was evident in the deeds of Abbot Morfran.
Molidor 45 Molidor Contrast glywhitor, n41(t), where there is a -t- ‘t’ in the ending; it is shown in GMW 122 that the original ending was -d-; see also Rodway 2013: 91. It is not necessary therefore to read molitor with GLlF 1.97. ei chôr a’i chelyfrad
A’i cherdd55 cerdd This could refer to a poem, such as this one, composed for the church and its saint, or to music, see GPC s.v. cerdd 1. As Llywelyn Fardd refers specifically to the celebration of mass here, perhaps the second sense is more likely. a’i chedwyr a’i llŷr a’i llad
A’i llan ger dylan, ger glan dylad – hefyd;56 ger dylan, ger glan dylad – hefyd A description of the church’s location near the seashore in Tywyn and close to the estuary of the Dysynni. It is quite possible, given the church’s location ‘towards the southern end of the alluvial plain south of the Dysynni estuary’ (Davidson 2001: 368), that the river flowed nearer to the church in the Middle Ages (see also n13(e)).
100Llwyddyd 46 Llwyddyd LlGC 6680B llwytyd, cf. ll. 101, 102; contrast ll. 103, 104 which have llwytid in the manuscript. I follow GMW 119 and HG Cref 235 and take llwyddyd to be an old third person singular present form with the ending -yd, forming internal rhyme here with gweryd and hyd, thus forming cynghanedd sain deirodl, of which there are several instances in this poem. For another example of the same ending -yd, proved this time by the end-rhyme, see TysilioCBM l. 176 perhëyd. Contrast GLlF 1.100 where the reading is modernized as llwyddid and understood as a third person singular imperative form here and in the following lines (llwyddid could also be a third person present form, GMW 119). See also n48(t). ei gweryd a’i hyd a’i had,
Llwyddyd gwir a thir yn ei threfad,
Llwyddyd gwledd a medd a meuedd mad,
Llwyddyd pob amyd a phob amad 47 a phob amad Deleting the conjunction a ‘and’ would give a line of regular length as well as enriching the alliteration in the cynghanedd sain. It is possible that the scribe was influenced by the series of conjunctions in the previous lines. – yndi:
Llwyddyd 48 Llwyddyd … / Llwyddyd… LlGC 6680B llwytid llwytid; see n46(t). As noted in HG Cref 235, the cynghanedd favours reading llwyddyd in l. 103, the internal rhyme with amyd giving cynghanedd sain; the same form is likely to be in l. 104. For llwyddid, which is also a third person present form, see GMW 119. ym foli filwyr 49 ym foli filwyr LlGC 6680B ym uoli uilwyr. The ‘object’ of a verbal noun does not usually mutate, and it is suggested in TC 231 that there may be an instance here of ‘presumed alliteration’, the scribe having emended milwyr > filwyr for the sake of the mid-line alliteration (cynghanedd braidd gyffwrdd); T.J. Morgan, ibid., further asks whether the original cynghanedd was ym (u)olimilwyr. Reading ym moli milwyr would be another possibility, especially as the mutation following the preposition in this type of sentence is not consistent: cf. GLlLl 19.21 Mabddysc ytt treulyaỽ treth enuyn y ueirt. However, the second suggestion in GLlF 1.104n is rejected, where the mutation in filwyr is ascribed to its being used in a vocative sense (i.e. ‘May praise song prosper for me, Oh upholder of warriors’). neirthiad!
105Llwyddedig 50 Llwyddedig LlGC 6680B llutedic. Lluddedig ‘exhausted’ does not give good sense here: we would not expect one of the Poets of the Princes to complain that his poem was tired or exhausted! It is therefore taken to be an error for llwyddedig ‘successful’, c., see GPC. Cf. also n51(t) for a suggestion that there may have been something unusual about the shape of w in the exemplar. Llwyddedig also provides better cymeriad at the beginning of the line with with Llwydd- (ll. 100–4) and Llwyddon (l. 106). fy ngherdd yng nghynrabad
Llwyddon 51 Llwyddon LlGC 6680B lluỽydon. I follow GPC s.v. llwydd 1 (adjective) and take this to be the plural form used nominatively of the visitors to the church at Tywyn. For another instance of -d- for ‘dd’ in this text, cf. n56(t) on addef (ms. adef). The scribe may have misinterpreted an irregularly formed w in his source, rendering it as uỽ here. Contrast GLlF lluyddon ‘hosts’, a three-syllable form that causes the first half of the line to be too long by a syllable and the second rhyme of the cynghanedd sain to fall irregularly on the sixth syllable instead of the fifth. a berthon parth 52 parth Reading barth here, and in l. 168, would give a line of cynghanedd sain; cf. GBF 46.25 Ys byd guawt berthwawt barth ac atat Rys ‘A poem of excellent song will come to you, Rhys’, and GGMD ii, 11.37 Mair, dyro borthair barth ag ataf ‘Mary, send me a word of support’. Is it possible that soft mutation of p- > b- was not routinely shown in the orthography of the exemplar? Cf. l. 131 Arfeddyd yw i’m bryd prydu iddi, which would also form cynghanedd sain if prydu were read as brydu. But it may be possible also that we have here an example of the alliteration of a consonant with its mutated form in the middle of a line, see Jones 1997: 54. As we cannot be certain, the radical consonant has been retained in the edited text. ag atad.
Llawen Duw Dofydd53 Duw Dofydd LlGC 6680B duỽ douyt; this could also be rendered as Duw Ddofydd, cf. G 398 which permits both readings. If there is mutation in Ddofydd, then we should also probably read ddydd (as does GLlF) for the expected alliteration in the middle of the line. dydd yd gaffad – Cadfan,
Agored i wan ei wen angad.
Ef gorau gwyrthau wrth 54 wrth Reading gwrth would give cynghanedd sain in the line. Ei gennad:
110Dillwng tân yman ymywn dillad;57 Saints were often characterized by their their ability to control the four elements (fire, water, air and earth), see Henken 1991: chapter 9. This, however, is the only reference to Cadfan carrying fire within his clothes. The miracle was the fact that hot embers were dropped onto the saint’s tunic, without them having any effect. Cf. Rhys Brydydd’s description of the same miracle performed by Cadog: CadogRhRh2 ll. 5–6 Cyrchu tân ni bu lanach / A’i ddwyn ’n ei bais yn ddyn bach ‘Fetching fire – there was no one more holy – and carrying it in his tunic as a small boy’. See further Henken 1991: 65–6. The adverb yman ‘here’ may suggest that Cadfan had performed the miracle in the church.
Ef a warawd 55 Ef a warawd LlGC 6680B ef waraỽd; the relative pronoun is added so that the line subdivides into the standard 5:4 syllables, cf. l. 114 Ef a gymerth (ms. ef gymerth). ball a gwall a gwad,
Bendigaw Gwynnyr58 Gwynnyr This is the only reference to an unknown person who, according to the context, was a leader in Meirionnydd in the time of Cadfan. a’i wŷr a’i wlad.
Ef a wnaeth ei faeth fal yngnad59 yngnad A variant form of ynad; its basic meaning was ‘a wise man’, c., but with time it developed the more specific meaning ‘magistrate, judge’, c., in legal contexts, see GPC s.v. ynad. The line suggests that Cadfan had spent his childhood (literally his ‘rearing’) as a wise man – an example of the puer senex topos found so frequently in the Lives of the saints. – addef, 56 addef LlGC 6680B adef; an example of -d- = ‘dd’ in the manuscript, rather than the expected -t-, cf. n23(t), n59(t).
Ef a gymerth 57 Ef a gymerth LlGC 6680B ef gymerth. Restoring the relative pronoun gives the correct line length as well as allowing the gair cyrch (addef) to rhyme regularly with the fifth syllable (nef) in the following line; cf. n55(t). nef dros dref ei dad.
115Dau ŵr a folaf, fal y’m ceniad – Dofydd,
Dau deg, dau ddedwydd, dau rydd roddiad,
Dau ddoeth yng nghyfoeth, yng nghyfaenad,60 yng nghyfaenad I follow G 199 and GPC and take this as a reference to the poet’s song (nâd) for the two men mentioned in l. 115. In GLlF 1.117n it is given the more general sense of ‘in harmony’.
Dau gu, dau gywaith, 58 gywaith LlGC 6680B gyueith. G 209 gives this as a variant form of cyfiaith ‘a fellow-countryman, a colleague’ (if so, it may refer to the fact that the two men, Cadfan and Lleudad, ll. 121–2, were cousins, from the same country, Brittany); however, GPC lists it under cywaith 1 ‘companion, comrade, friend’. dau wyneithad,
Dau a wna gwyrthau er goleuad – rhagddudd, 59 rhagddudd LlGC 6680B racdud. The metre calls for -udd, to rhyme with budd in l. 120, see GMW 59; for other examples in this text of -d or d- for ‘dd’, see n23(t), n56(t).
120Dau ddiludd eu budd er bodd eirchad,
Dau gefnderw oeddynt ni ferwynt frad:
Cadfan i gadw llan, ef a Lleudad.61 Cadfan … a Lleudad There is no evidence in the genealogies that Cadfan and Lleudad/Lleuddad were true cousins (ll. 121 dau gefnderw ‘two cousins’), and it is suggested in GLlF 1.122n that their relationship was therefore likely to have been a ‘spiritual’ one. However, as we cannot depend on the evidence of the genealogies, there may well have been a tradition, known to Llywelyn Fardd, that Lleudad was among Cadfan’s many cousins (EWGT 57–8).
There was a tradition also that Cadfan’s church in Tywyn was the mother church of the church on Bardsey, and that Cadfan, the first abbot of Bardsey, was succeded by Lleudad: see Elliss 1950: 16; Thomas 1971: 227–31; TWS 168–73. The llogawd ysydd herwydd heli which is associated with both saints in ll. 139–40 is likely to be Bardsey, as is the llan in l. 122.
60 Lleudad LlGC 6680B lleudad. The manuscript’s orthography suggests reading ‘Lleudad’, and not ‘Lleuddad’, here and in l. 140. Hywel Dafi, in a poem to Bardsey, has the form Lleudad, which is proved by the cynghanedd: GHDafi 95.12 Gennad, at Leudad lwydwyn, ll. 33 Gweniaith lydan, gwnaeth Leudad, as does Iolo Goch, probably, GIG XXIII.56 O’i wlad i dir Lleudad llwyd (although it is not necessary to answer the final d in llwyd here). Contrast GLlF 1.122, 140 (modern Welsh orthography) Lleuddad, which follows LBS iii, 369–74 and TWS 168–73 (where the confusion between Lleud(d)ad and Llawddog is also discussed).

V
Cadr y ceidw Cadfan glan 61 glan On the lack of mutation in the object, cf. n5(t). glas weilgi,
Cadr fab Eneas,62 Eneas For Cadfan’s parents, see n5(e), n7(e). gwanas63 gwanas A peg or a hook, often used figuratively in the poetry for a patron or lord who supports his people; see GPC. gweddi.
125Cadrfryn yw Tywyn,64 cadrfryn yw Tywyn For a concise history and description of Tywyn church, and its early importance as a mother church, see Davidson 2001: 368–70; Thomas 1971: 226–31; ‘Coflein’ St Cadfan’s Church, Tywyn; Towyn. In 1620 a chapel named Capel Cadfan was recorded within its cemetery (Davidson 2001: 369n239), but nothing is known of its history. The church, as it is today, dates from the second half of the 12th century (ibid. 369), and is therefore roughly contemporary with Llywelyn Fardd’s poem. The description of the church’s location as cadrfryn (bryn = ‘hill’) is perhaps unexpected; but cf. l. 165 morlan uchel ‘the prominent coast’, and also ll. 69–70 Uchel log yw hon . / Uchel lan Gadfan ‘This is a prominent church … / the prominent church of Cadfan’. The poet is probably referring to the fact that the church is located on a slight mound, up to which the sea would have reached in the Middle Ages: see also n13(e). nid iawn tewi – ag ef,
Cadr addef nef ail ei athrefi.
Cadr yd eu65 yd eu The preverbal particle yd is followed here by the syllabic form of the infixed third person plural pronoun (ms. y), which refers in advance to cadredd a llariedd in the following line, see GMW 56 and cf. GLlF 2.28 Mal y’th ryuegeis, yd yth geissaf (= ‘I will seek you’). Contrast GLlF 1.12n where the manuscript yd y is understood as two preverbal particles, similar to yd yr in ll. 26, 36. cedwis ger Disynni⁠66 ger Disynni The mouth of the Dysynni is located some two miles up the coast from Tywyn. The estuary was wider and closer to the town in the time of Llywelyn Fardd, so that the church was literally ger Disynni ‘beside river Dysynni’. See n64(e). 62 Disynni LlGC 6680B dissynny, with the end-rhyme proving that the manuscript’s final y = ‘i’. The possible llusg-rhyme between cedwis and the first syllable of Disynni may be an argument for reading Dis-, rather than Dys-, here (contrast l. 132 dyffwn, ms. diffwn); for similar examples of llusg ragobennol (i.e. with its second rhyme in the antepenultimate syllable), see Andrews 2009: 172. DPNW 135 suggest that the first element in Disynni is cognate with, or a derivative of the Latin distineo ‘to separate’.
Cadredd a llariedd a llary roddi:
Cadr hwysgynt orfynt orfyrthi67 gorfyrthi The only instance of the word, for which GPC tentatively offers ‘growth, increase, gain’. – tewdor,
130Cadr ysgor arfor, arfodd yndi.
Arfeddyd yw i’m 63 yw i’m As the first half of the line is too long, yw i’m should be shortened to a single syllable, or yw could be omitted. bryd prydu 64 prydu LlGC 6680B prydu; should we read brydu which would give better cynghanedd (i.e. Arfeddyd bryd brydu)? See n52(t). iddi,
Arfaethwn, dyffwn dyffrynt 65 dyffwn dyffrynt LlGC 6680B diffỽn dyffrynt. For dyffwn, the first person imperfect subjunctive of dyfod, see G 414 and GMW 135. GLlF 1.132 (modern Welsh orthography) mutates dyffrynt here, expressing the destination of the verb dyfod ‘to come’; and as noted in TC 227, mutation was generally expected in this construction, after both a personal verb and a verbal noun. However, by reading ddyffrynt here we lose the mid-line alliteration (unless alliteration between a consonant and its mutated form was permitted, see n52(t)). I suggest, therefore, that we may have an example here of the provection of -n dd- > -n d-, see TC 26–7. Dyfi.68 dyffrynt Dyfi The Dyfi formed the southern boundary of Meirionnydd, and more relevant, perhaps, the southern boundary of the parish of Tywyn; see the references given in GLlF 1.32, and the map in Smith 2001: 722.
Ar a fynnwy Duw, 66 Duw LlGC 6680B duỽ; the variant form Dwy would give cynghanedd sain here, cf. n9(t). nid egrygi – iddaw
Arfeiddaw treiddaw trag Eryri:69 treiddaw trag Eryri Was Llywelyn Fardd a poet from Gwynedd or Anglesey, who would have crossed Snowdonia to reach Tywyn? Would his route have taken him along the river Dyfi and along the coastline to Tywyn (l. 132)?
135Arfaeth ehelaeth wrth ei holi,70 ei holi Is the poet referring to the church (cf. l. 130 yndi?) or to Cadfan?
Arfau o Ddehau⁠71 arfau o Ddehau A reference to Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd’s attack on Meirionnydd in 1147, see the Introduction. barau beri.
Arwyn ei drwydded cyn no’i drengi – ydoedd
Yn cadw rhag cyhoedd anlloedd Enlli.72 Enlli For Cadfan and Lleudad’s connection with Bardsey, see n61(e).
Un llogawd ysydd herwydd heli,73 herwydd heli This is taken to be synonymous with dra gweilgi ‘over the ocean’, c.; cf. the sense given for herwydd as a preposition in GPC 1(a) and note that it is cognate with gerfydd ‘by, by means of’.
140 Lleudad a Chadfan74 Lleudad a Chadfan See n61(e). yn ei chedwi:
Llyre werhydre75 llyre werydre Following the pattern of gwerydre ‘land, region’ (ᚲ gweryd ‘earth’ + re), this sole example of llyre is explained in GPC as a combination of llŷr ‘sea’ + -re. As regards syntax, the combination (g)wrhydri lliaws ‘the courage of many’ is taken to be the main element, with llyre werydre depending on it; cf. the following line by the same poet, GLlF 2.53 Eryri getwi gat olystaf ‘the one with the most outstanding army (gat olystaf) defending Snowdonia (Eryri getwi)’, and for similar constructions, see Parry Owen 2003: 246. wrhydri – lliaws,
Hydraws, hydraidd, maws a mynogi.
Ysid 67 Ysid LlGC 6680B yssyt, which suggests ‘ysydd’. G 62 refers to the use of yssy[dd] at the beginning of a sentence (without listing this instance). However, ysydd is a relative verb (GMW 63), and CLlH 154 suggests that the instances of its use at the beginning of a sentence are errors for ysid, e.g. ibid. (V.7a) Yssydd (> Yssit) Lanfawr dra gweilgi (cf. Rowland 1990: 539). Therefore the emended reading Yssid ‘there is’ given in GLlF 1.143 is accepted here; cf. GBF 26.1 Yssid (ms. ysyt) yn arglwyt ‘There is for us a lord’. Ysid causes soft mutation in the subject that follows it directly, see G 62 d.g. yssit. lan lawndeg ei mynegi
Ym Meirionnydd wlad, mad ei moli.
145Molaf Dduw uchaf, archaf weddi – iddaw:
Athreiddaw, cyn taw 68 cyn taw LlGC 6680B kyn thaỽ. An unexpected error; the reading must be emended for the sense, and for the alliteration between taw and tewi.~ a chyn tewi,
Athreiddlan Gadfan gadr athrefi,
Athreiddle haelon haelach no Thri;76 haelach no Thri Claiming that the generosity of a patron surpassed that of the ‘Three Generous Men’, namely Nudd, Mordaf and Rhydderch Hael, was a topos in the poetry, see TYP 5–7. Cf. GLlLl 2.29–30, and in particular cf. GCBM i, 21.60 Pan voled haelon haelach no’r Tri ‘When were praised the generous men who were more generous than the Three’. Llywelyn Fardd is here praising the generosity of the pilgrims who visited Cadfan’s church.
A chrefydd herwydd, herwyr wrthi – nid moes
150Ac nid oes eisioes eisau yndi,
Namyn heirdd a beirdd a barddoni,
Namyn hedd, a medd ymewn llestri,
Namyn hawdd amrawdd yn ymroddi – â bardd
A gwŷr hardd heb gardd, heb galedi,
155Ac eurgrawn a dawn a daeoni,
Ac eurgrair cywair cywiw â hi,
Ac angerdd a cherdd a cheiniedi77 cerdd a cheiniedi The basic meaning of cerdd is ‘craft’, and it could therefore refer to music as well as poetry. Similarly, ceiniedi is ambiguous, as canu could refer to the activity of poets or of musicians. There is probably a reference to both crafts in this line. – llawen,
Ac amgen yw ein 69 yw ein The line is too long by a syllable, and as there are six syllables in the first half instead of the standard five, yw ein can be contracted > yw’n, or yw can be omitted, cf. n63(t). llen â78 amgen … â Although no usually follows amgen in a comparison, cf. G 22, there are a few instances of â, cf. Jones 1937–9: 336 Ac nyt amgen weledigaeth a honno a weles libanius athro ‘And the teacher Libanius had not seen a better vision than that’. Llan Ddewi,79 Llan Ddewi St David’s church in Llanddewibrefi? Gwynfardd Brycheiniog referred to its llen bali, DewiGB l. 157 A llên a llyfrau a’r llen bali ‘scholars and books and a cloak of brocaded silk’. The poets are probably referring to a cloak (llen) or mantle, or a liturgical veil that would have been placed on the rood or an image within the church; cf. GIBH 12.23n s.v. pais.
Ac am gylch ei chlawdd ei chlas80 clas GPC explains it as a borrowing from the Latin classis ‘army, navy; class’; the principal meaning given, ibid. (a), is ‘monastic community, … convent’, and consequently it could refer to the actual church building itself, ‘cloister; college’. It is likely (but not certain) that Cynddelw is referring to the church of Meifod in TysilioCBM ll. 90 Berth ei chlas a’i chyrn glas gloywhir. In GLlF 1.159 it is taken that Llywelyn Fardd is referring to the monastic community at Cadfan’s church; however, as noted ibid.n., the line could be referring to those living outside the church perimeter, if claỽt denotes the wall or boundary which encircled the church and its cemetery. GPC, ibid. (b), gives the sense ‘people of the same country, band or community of fellow-countrymen’ (with examples as early as those in the ecclesiastical sense): is Llywelyn Fardd, therefore, referring here to the people of Tywyn in general who lived outside the church perimeter but within the saint’s sanctuary? gofri,
160Ac amgyrn o ddyrn, addurn westi,
Ac amgant lliant yn llenwi – aber,
Ac amser gosber gosbarth weini.81 gosbarth weini Gosbarth is understood as ‘organizer, ruler’, see GPC; but it could also refer to the service itself, in which case gosbarth weini could be translated ‘the provision of the service’.

VI
Gweinifiad fy nad am rad, am ran,
Gwenifaid o’i blaid ceiniaid82 ceiniaid A derivative of the verb canu ‘to sing’, used often by the poets to refer to themselves, cf. GCBM i, 16.5 Dysgỽeyd keinyeid kyuaenad eu rwyf ‘The singers proclaim their lord’s poem’, where Cynddelw identifies with the poets who present their verses to Owain Cyfeiliog. However, it could mean ‘singers, cantors’ in its musical sense here, cf. n77(e). Cadfan.
165Cedwyr o du mŷr, o du morlan – uchel,83 morlan – uchel This instance of uchel is listed under the meaning ‘high’ in the geographical sense in GPC and GLlF 1.165, and it is likely that the poet is describing the site of the church as being higher than the surrounding land, the impression given when it would have been surrounded by water at high tide; cf. n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn. Despite following GPC and taking glan to be the second element of morlan here, it is quite possible that the poet had llan ‘eglwys’ in mind, ‘church of the sea’, especially as its geographical location beside and above the sea has been a constant theme throughout this poem.
Yn cadw eu rhyfel, nid ymgelan:
Deon Meirionnydd, elfydd eilfan,84 elfydd eilfan For eilfan ‘well-defended site or height’, see GPC s.v. eilfan 1 and cf. GLlLl 24.59 eiluann Urychan Urycheinyawc ‘the high fort of Brychan Brycheiniog’; GCBM i, 9.10 Mur eluyt, eiluan gaỽr ‘A defensive wall for the land, a high station in battle’. The combination is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd, and the poet could be referring to the church on the coast at Tywyn as a place of defence (cf. ll. 165–7); or it could be a specific reference to Cynfael Castle which was unsuccessfully defended by Morfran in 1147 (see the Introduction). The second element in the compound is less likely to be the personal name Eilfan: that is how it is understood in GLlF, following G 467, associating the name with Elfan Powys, son of Cyndrwyn (see Rowland 1990: 587), and reminding us that Meirionnydd was part of Powys before c.1120. No further references to an association between E(i)lfan and Meirionnydd have been found in the poetry.
Duw gantudd, 70 gantudd LlGC 6680B gantut which could also represent ‘ganddudd’ (cf. GLlF 1.168) following the usual orthography of the poem. I follow Sims-Williams 2013: 35 because of the lack of early evidence for the stem gandd-. eu budd parth 71 parth Reading barth here would give cynghanedd sain; cf. n52(t). ag atan.
Dewisais fy ngherdd yng nghynfaran – cynnif85 cynnif Its basic meaning is ‘toil, labour’, GPC s.v. cynnif 1, and in a military context, ‘battle’. The poet may be referring to the ferocity of the tide, possibly during a storm.
170O du llanw a llif a llef dylan:
Dewrwr a folaf a folan 72 folan LlGC 6680B uolafnt; the suggestion in HG Cref 235 to emend the manuscript reading to uolann for the sake of the end-rhyme is adopted here; cf. l. 166 ymgelann, which is also a third person plural present tense verb. (Did the source manuscript perhaps have uolann, the scribe misreading this for uolaun, interpreting the second u as ‘f’, before realizing that it was a third person plural form of the verb that was needed, and correcting it to uolant?) We have, therefore, a regular toddaid in ll. 171–2; but note that the lines are interpreted as cyhydedd hir in GLlF (although they are not listed as such, ibid. p. 10). For further examples of two couplets of toddaid following each other by Llywelyn Fardd, cf. ll. 113–16 and GLlF 2.33–6. For the soft mutation that is usual to the subject directly following a third person plural verb, cf. GMB 3.141. – feirdd byd,
(Dewrwyr a weryd penyd pob gwan)
Doniawg bedrydawg o bedrydan,
Doniau diamau deddfau Ieuan.86 Ieuan St John, the apostle.
175Tra 73 Tra LlGC 6680B y tra. The emendation gives us five syllables in the first half of this line of toddaid. But as noted in GLlF 1.175n, y tra may represent a contracted form of o hyd tra or o yd tra. fo ef yn nef yn ei 74 yn ei Contracting this to one syllable, ’n ei, gives the expected five syllables in the second half of this first line of toddaid, cf. n40(t). wengan – gadair
Yn ben ban llefair, yn bair eirian,
Cadwedig fy ngwawd i’w logawd lan:87 llogawd lan Literally a llan ‘church’ that is a llogawd ‘monastery’.
Cedwid Duw dewrddoeth cyfoeth Cadfan!


I
The supreme Prophet, God protect me,
the rightful Owner whose miracles are great, Lord of deliverance:
according to my Lord’s1 Rhwyf ‘Lord’, cf. GPC s.v. rhwyf 1. Following GLlF 3.3 this is taken to refer to God, but it could also refer either to Cadfan or to a contemporary leader (be it the head of the church at Tywyn or a secular lord), in the sense that the inspiration God gives the poet will bring pleasure to that lord. desire, may He provide me with poetic inspiration,
an awdl whose fate is excellent, of superior devotion.
5I wish to praise,2 caru As is the case with the verb hoffi (modern Welsh ‘to like’), the poets sometimes used caru (modern Welsh ‘to love’) as a synonym for praise. For hoffi ‘to praise’, see Williams 1923–5: 39–41. to celebrate a patron3 canrhed Cf. the sense ‘help, protection’ given in GPC. It is taken here to refer to the saint, or possibly a contemporary patron; cf. Cynddelw’s use of the noun for God in GCBM ii, 16.190 Canret cret, creuyd a’m rodỽy ‘The patron of the world, may he give me godliness’, and ibid. 17.96. However, the sense ‘society, company’ also given in GPC is possible, cf. GLlF 1.5; in McKenna 2015: 273 the line is translated as ‘I love the song of community’. in song,
since my Lord has given me a gift that is the object of desire,
since God gives me a sufficiency of joy
to praise Cadfan, the protection of warriors.4 cedwyr nodded There is a play in ll. 8–14 on the element cad- ‘battle’ in Cadfan’s name, and it is possible that it was this element that led to his being considered the patron saint of warriors in particular: see further the Introduction.
He defended the entitlement of his land and its revenues,
10the valiant warrior defended a fine dwelling-place;
God ensured respect, as man or youth,
for the son of Eneas,5 Eneas Cadfan’s lineage is given in ‘Bonedd y Saint’: Catuan sant m. Eneas ledewic o Lydaw , a Gwenn teirbron merch Emyr Llydaw y vamSt Cadfan … son of Eneas Ledewig from Llydaw (?Brittany), and Gwen of the three breasts his mother, the daughter of Emyr Llydaw’ (EWGT 57). See further the Introduction. whose status is that of a well-born youth;
the lord of loyal blessings,6 cedwir It is understood as a compound adjective (ced + gwir) describing Cadfan (the nen ‘lord’) whose blessings are loyal to his followers. However, it is understood as an impersonal verb in GLlF 1.13, and the adjective is not listed in GPC. the son of Gwen,7 Gwen Gwen Teirbron, the mother of Cadfan and daughter of Emyr Llydaw, see n26(e). For her cult in Brittany, see Jones and Owen 2003: 47–8. was seen to be saintly:8 a fad weled A reference to the sanctity of Cadfan (cf. DewiGB l. 210 Dewi mawr Mynyw, mad y’i gweled), or to the fact that whoever saw him was ‘fortunate’ (mad).
may the powerful one whose nature is strong on a battlefield support me!
15May I receive God’s help, a genius that gives satisfaction,
skilful learning bringing delight, a special deed,
to accomplish work that may not be9 ni bo For ni bo, instead of the expected ni fo in a relative clause (if that is the correct interpretation), see G 67. weariness
in the place where violence does not venture by intent,10 trasglwy A hapax form, explained in GLlF 1.18n as a variant of trawsgwydd / trawsglwydd, which is discussed in PKM 256–7; cf. GLlF 2.34 traỽsglỽyd uỽyhaf ‘the greatest undertaking’. For its range of meanings, see GPC s.v. trawsglwydd, trawsgwydd ‘plan, intention, aim, undertaking, provision’, c. It is taken here in combination with the verbal noun myned. Another possibility, following GLlF, would be to combine it with trais: ‘intention of violence’.
where no man ventures to compel the needy out of the church
20near the blue ocean’s shore on account of its privilege;
where no one ventures to bring force on account of its legal due,11 A difficult line to translate, although the meaning is fairly clear. Dir is understood as the noun, ‘force’, c., and for daered, ‘(fixed) legal due, tax, tribute, impost; income … bequest to the church’, c., see GPC s.v. daered 1.
where I will venture to wander all my life.
There are three altars of great virtue whose miracles are well-known12 gwyrthau glywed The verbal noun (clywed) is preceded by its object (gwyrthau), the combination modifying tair allawr gwyrthfawr. The line is translated loosely. For the lack of mutation in the adjective, gwyrthfawr, following a numeral + feminine noun, see TC 64–5.
between the sea, a wooded slope and a powerful tide:13 gwrdd lanwed Probably a reference to the powerful tide in the Dysynni estuary, which would have been closer to Tywyn church in the Middle Ages, before the Corbet family of Ynysymaengwyn drained much of the saltmarsh in the 18th century; see Gover 2015: 30, ‘It was not until the draining of the marshes in the 18th century that the fields we see now to the north of the church were created. In the 12th century the whole area would have been covered at high tide … The church on its small mound would have towered above it’; cf. n64(e), n66(e).
25the altar of Mary that came from the Lord, a trustworthy and valuable relic;
the altar of Peter, may it be praised on account of his authority;
and the third altar14 a’r drydedd allawr Cadfan’s altar, although he is not named. which was bestowed from heaven,
blessed is its dwelling-place15 gwyn ei fyd ei thref As tref is almost exclusively a feminine noun (see GPC), we would expect gwyn ei byd here, as in LlDC 15.1 Gwin y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy ‘Blessed is the birch tree in the Wye Valley’. However, for gwyn ei fyd meaning ‘blessed’, the pronoun ei having lost its force, see G 743 and cf. GLlG 3.15–16 Gwyn ei fyd feirdd byd / Gwyn ei fyd anant ‘Blessed are the poets of the world … / Blessed are the minstrels’. because of its hospitality there.
Blessed is he who abides in contentment
30in the place where dwells the lord of Ednyfed’s land;16 gwlad Ednywed Cf. GLlF 1.30n where this is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed ab Einudd, a descendant of Meirion Meirionnydd, its founder, see EWGT 108; WCD s.n. Ednyfed ab Einudd. The poets often refer to a region or land as belonging to its supposed founder (cf. Cynddelw’s description of Powys, GCBM i, 15.14 Gwlad Urochfael Ysgithraỽc ‘The land of Brochfael Ysgithrog’); however, no other reference to Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed has been found, nor any reference in the poetry to Ednyfed ab Einudd. The suggestion in G 439 that ednywed should be interpreted as a common noun ‘satisfaction, desire’ cannot be disregarded (cf. HG Cref 85); however, ednywed is not included in GPC.
blessed his disposition is he who has been honoured therein,17 If the natural word order has been changed, we could translate ‘blessed is he whose mind has been honoured therein’.
it has been fashioned like St David’s church:18 eglwys Dewi As noted in GLlF 1.32n, we cannot be certain which of St David’s churches the poet has in mind here – St Davids, Llanddewibrefi or another Llanddewi. However, the suggestion implicit here is that David’s church was magnificent, and that Cadfan’s church resembled it.
the mighty church of Cadfan, a brilliant sight,
a shining whitewashed church made resplendent,19 Cf. the famous description in Historia Gruffudd ap Cynan of the newly built churches in Gwynedd sparkling like stars during the reign of Gruffudd ap Cynan (d. 1137): HGK 30.17–18 echtywynygu a wnei Wynedd yna o eglwysseu kalcheit, fal y ffurfafen o’r syr ‘then Gwynedd gleamed because of its whitewashed churches, like the firmament with stars’.
35a church of faith, of religion, of belief and of communion,
it has been fashioned as if for20 wrth Its exact meaning is unclear; however, see GPC s.v. wrth under (2), ‘because of’, ‘in answer to’, ‘for’, ‘on behalf of’, c. God himself.

II >
His God fashioned for him an excellent dwelling-place
when he came from Brittany as head of a Christian company.21 ar lydw The preposition ar ‘upon, over’, is taken with GLlF 1.37 to refer to the tradition that Cadfan had come to Tywyn from Brittany, as the head of a company of saints (who were mostly his cousins); see the Introduction.
A holy son who did not foster any sin,22 ni faeth cerydd The third person singular preterite form maeth also takes a non-mutated object in GDB 3.21 Ny maeth bygylaeth ‘He did not foster cowardice’; however, by the 14th century, the soft mutation of the object was more usual, cf. GGMD ii, 1.167 ni faeth gaeth gythrudd ‘he did not foster grievous distress’.
40may God bless the divine servant:
the blessing of the nine orders of heaven23 naw radd nef The nine orders of angels in heaven, see GPC s.v. nawradd and GP 199. upon his dwelling-places,
the honoured one who pacifies his people24 cynhewydd This is the only example of the word outside a dictionary. Davies 1632: s.v. gives the meaning ‘qui tacet, taciturnus’, deriving it from the verb cynhewi (ᚲ tewi) ‘to silence’, cf. GPC ‘?silencer; silent person’. Cf. also G 250 where it is suggested that it could be a derivative of tew ‘fat’. However, it is tentatively taken to be a description of Cadfan here, as one who ‘pacifies’ his people, bringing them peace of mind. in a blessed land.
It was a blessed journey for his company25 Bendigaid a daith o’i gyweithydd A reference to the tradition that Cadfan came to Wales from Brittany, in charge of a group of saints, see n21(e) and the Introduction. For o’i ‘to his’, see GMW 53.
each night and each day when he came to the kingdom,
45when the descendant of Emyr26 esillydd – Ymer A description of Cadfan as a descendant (esillydd) of his grandfather, Emyr Llydaw, the father of his mother, Gwen Teirbron: see n7(e). It has been shown that ymyr, emyr was originally a common noun (from the Latin imperium or imperator) and that emyr (in the combination emyr Llydaw) was later misinterpreted as a personal name (Lloyd-Jones 1941–4: 34–6). had the desire to gaze at
Aber Menwenfer27 Aber Menwenfer Or possibly Aber Menwenwer (cf. LlGC 6680B aber menwener, the having been added by the main scribe). HG Cref 234 suggests emending menwener > menver, and refers to Minwear in Narberth, Pembrokeshire, which had forms such as Minuer and Mynwer in the Middle Ages; see further Charles 1992: 526–7 where it is suggested that the elements could be min ‘edge’ + gwern ‘alder-swamp’. However, this reading would not give a rhyme in the fifth syllable with the gair cyrch in l. 45 (a pattern that is very regular throughout this poem). Aber Menwenỽer is also taken to be a place-name in GLlF 1.46, without explanation, but it is listed as a common noun in G 5. The poet is probably referring to the estuary of the Dysynni – cf. Lewis 2005: 50–1 (and see ibid. footnote 29) – but the name is unknown and nothing similar has been found in Archif MR. As noted above, n13(e), the Dysynni estuary was closer to Tywyn in the Middle Ages; was the name lost as the location of the estuary changed?
This seems to be an interesting example of the appreciation of landscape in the Middle Ages. St Tydecho, who had come with Cadfan from Brittany, had quite a different experience; after settling for a while in Llandudoch, he became fed up of the sea (Ni charai / Y môr llwyd ‘he did not like the grey sea’), and moved inland to Mawddwy: gw. TydechoDLl ll. 7–18. We get the impression that there were many stories about Cadfan and his company of saints in the Middle Ages, but only vague references have survived the passage of time.
each evening and each morning.

This is an exalted praise poem for Meirionnydd,
an exalted poet fashions it like a master-poet:28 Uchelfardd a’i pryd fegys prydydd The verb pryd, verbal noun prydu, has the meaning ‘to compose, to fashion’ here, and its object is Uchelwawd (l. 47). Is Llywelyn Fardd suggesting that he himself was not a prydydd, i.e. by saying that he is composing ‘like a master-poet’ (fegys prydydd)? Remember that he was called Llywelyn Fardd ; contrast the name of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr. The line contains cynghanedd draws wreiddgoll, with Uchelfardd, the word not included in the cynghanedd, alliterating and forming cymeriad with the first word in ll. 47 and 49.
the majestic country of Cadfan where together reside
50the humble lord’s Gospel Book which is ready to hand29 preswyl The adjective suggests that the Gospel Book (Efengyl) was always at hand (GPC ‘ready, to hand’). The ‘humble lord’ (ufyl ofydd) could refer either to Cadfan or the contemporary head of the church – the ambiguity is probably deliberate.
and the beautiful precious crosier30 Efengyl … / A’r fagl The two relics, a book of Gospels and a crosier, were presumably kept at the church in Tywyn; both were believed to have special powers as they had once belonged to Cadfan. A saint’s crozier and Gospel Book are named together in the law books as items of particular significance in relation to agreeing the boundaries of territories, rights over land, and so on: cf. Pryce 1993: 209 (who discusses their importance in the law books), ‘The crosier and gospel book will almost certainly have been relics, representing the authority of the church’s founding saint who had reputedly owned them. Originally, they may have been carried around the boundaries.’ The two contending sides would swear an oath upon the relics, and it is even possible, as Pryce suggests, that details about the boundaries of lands given to the church would be added into the Gospel Book over the centuries, as in the case of the glosses added to the Lichfield Gospels which give details regarding the rights of Teilo’s churches in Llandaf and Llandeilo. For the importance of relics in oath-taking, see ibid. 41–3. of the ever-new miracles
that prevents enemies from killing each other,31 A ludd i’r gelyn ladd ei gilydd Cadfan’s crozier would restore peace between enemies as would Cyrwen, Padarn’s crozier, see Williams 1941–2: 70–1.
and its lord who brings prosperity to his land, the joy of the country,
who ensures that its sanctuary32 noddfa For the significance of churches’ nawdd (‘sanctuary’) and braint (‘privilege’) in the Middle Ages, cf. Jones and Owen 2003: 55, ‘Both braint and nawdd are native legal concepts developed in a church context from the field of secular law where braint means the right of enjoying full legal status or privilege. In the case of a church, it is a privilege generally associated with royal grant or protection.’ In the 12th century Gerald of Wales emphasized the Welshman’s respect for the saints’ sanctuaries: ‘The more important churches … offer sanctuary for as far as the cattle go to feed in the morning and can return at evening’, Thorpe 1978: 254. The ‘lord who brings prosperity to his land’ [arglwydd gwladlwydd of the previous line], who defends the church’s sanctuary and protection, is probably Hywel ab Owain, see the Introduction. is sound and blessed.
55An equal to the praiseworthy Osfran33 Osfran An unknown hero, possibly remembered for his military prowess. Was he the father of the warrior killed at the battle of Camlan, according to the Stanzas of the Graves, LlDC 18.36 Bet mab ossvran yg camlan ‘The grave of the son of Osfran at Camlan’? It is possible that GGMD i, 4.85 rhuthr osbran refers to the military prowess of the same Osbran or Osfran, and should be translated as ‘the onslaught of Osbran’. Llywelyn Fardd is probably praising the secular lord Hywel ab Owain (see the Introduction) in ll. 53–6, before returning in l. 57 to praise Abbot Morfran. piercing enemies’ shields,
the shield of the splendid and generous lord who defeats any claim against him,
and its abbot and benefactor, he bestows blessings,
he distributes to us an abundance from his church:
he organizes a military campaign with God’s approval,
60Morfran34 Morfran The abbot of Tywyn church and probably the patron of this poem; see the Introduction. of the highly renowned shield, greatness on a triumphant day of battle.35 dydd If it is correct to assume that ll. 59–60 praise Morfran’s military prowess and excellent defending skills (symbolized by his rhod, his round shield), then dydd can be understood here to mean ‘encounter, battle’, see GPC s.v. dydd 2(c), with diddan perhaps referring to triumph in victory. Could the poet be referring here to Morfran’s defence of Cynfael Castle in 1147 against the attack by Hywel ab Owain and his brother Cynan? See further the Introduction.
God has created two elders36 dau henefydd Cadfan and Abbot Morfran? Or Morfran and another contemporary leader of the church? on its behalf [i.e. on behalf of Meirionnydd],
there are kindly priests of good fortune there:
being under the authority of the famous one
does not cause any anxiety to the blessed valley37 dyffrynt Tywyn itself is not situated in a valley, but the Dysynni valley is to the north-east and Cwm Maethon and many other valleys are to the south-east. of unwavering faith,
65the one who defends the rood,38 crog Probably a reference to a rood in Tywyn church, cf. GLlF 1.65n. Contrast the sense ‘gallows’ given in Pryce 1985: 166 where it is suggested that the items named in ll. 65–6 are concerned with the rights and territory of Tywyn, and that a reference to the gallows would convey the legal authority to bring judgement upon thieves and punish them by hanging. However, crog here is taken with côr (also in l. 65) to refer to a feature within the church itself. the taxes, the forests, the chancel
and the sea, the coast and the uplands.

III
How profitable is my provision39 cynnelw ‘Support’ or ‘succour, provision’, c., see GPC. It is used occasionally by the poets in the context of their relationship with their patron, but it is not always clear whether it refers to support provided by the patron or for him; cf. DewiGB n2(e) on Cynnelw o Ddewi. The ambiguity is retained here in the translation. With this line, cf. in particular GCBM ii, 2.54 Kyndelỽ a’e kynnhelỽ yn y kynnhor ‘Cynddelw supports him in the van of battle’ (to Owain Gwynedd). Llywelyn Fardd and Cynddelw are probably both referring to their place at the forefront of the court, reflecting their high status as poets. at the head of a crowd
during the course of a joyous occasion in the festive season.40 uchel dymor Llywelyn is probably referring to an important feast in the church calendar, when he would have been treated with special esteem by the head of the church.
This is a prominent church in the presence of a powerful leader,
70the prominent church41 Uchel log … / Uchel lan The poet is possibly differentiating between llog (ᚲ Latin locus ‘place’), in the sense of the church including its lands (cf. TysilioCBM n69(e)), and llan, namely the church building itself and the cemetery which would have been enclosed by a fence or a wall. The adjective uchel probably describes the church’s prominence in the landscape, see n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn; however, it could also describe its ‘high’ status. of Cadfan by the shore of the blue sea.
From its territory and its dwelling-place of power
not a single foot is lost through strife, a place that is difficult to forgo!
No one ventures to bring violence over its defences,
no one contemplates deceit42 ni chymwyll neb twyll Neb ‘anyone’ is the subject of the verb, and twyll is its object. (On the lack of mutation in the object, see n5(t) on rheg.) Neb twyll could also be taken together (‘any deceit’) and understood as the subject of the verb: ‘No deceit contemplates penetrating its door’. in order to penetrate its door;
75the chief of a host did not make peace through bad counsel43 llaw gyngor It could also be an adjectival compound, with a nominal force, ‘one whose advice is bad’, cf. GLlF 1.75; McKenna 2015: 276 translates ‘The lord of the host has not tolerated cowardice [= llaw gyngor] in conflict’. in battle
(the one of similar nature to him44 yr un eisior Do ll. 76–7 refer to Cadfan whilst ll. 75, 78–80 refer to Abbot Morfran? (On the abbot’s defence of his territory, see the Introduction.) The poet explains in ll. 76–7 that Cadfan, unlike the abbot, did not need any weapons or words of fury, because, as we saw in ll. 51–2, his crozier ensured peace. did not take possession of a shield
nor of unjust words against the one of the fury of Hector45 Echdor The classical hero Hector son of Priam, who was renowned for his military strength, see TYP 337–8.),
no fault could be found with the shield on the lord’s shoulder:
I cannot fault my lord in his turbulent rage
80defending47 cadw The verbal noun in the sense ‘to defend’, cf. G 91. The personal name Cadfan mutates as it depends on the feminine noun bangeibr. Such loose compounds containing verbal nouns are often used as participles in the poetry (as here) or pronominally (‘the defender of Cadfan’s great church’): see Parry Owen 2003: 248–9; Lloyd 1933–5: 16–22. Contrast GLlF 1.80 where cadw is understood as a noun meaning ‘flock’ (McKenna 2015: 277 ‘The lofty church of Cadfan’s flock’). As cadw seems to be a masculine noun only in that sense (see GPC s.v. cadw 1, with examples from the 14th century onwards) we would not expect the mutated Gadfan. the great church46 bangeibr A word also used by Gwynfardd Brycheiniog to describe high-status churches, see DewiGB n58(e) s.v. Meiddrym. of Cadfan like that of Bangor.48 Bangor Tywyn church belonged to the diocese of Bangor, and the poet is probably comparing the size and status of Cadfan’s church to that of the great cathedral church in Arfon. It is suggested in GLlF 1.80n that Llywelyn Fardd may even be claiming Tywyn’s indepedence from Bangor, at a time when this ancient mother church would have lost some of its status following the creation of the diocese earlier in the century, see Gresham 1985–9: 191–2.
Its renowned relics are heard of clearly,49 ban glywhitor For the archaic verbal form clywhitor, see n41(t). With the combination ban glywhitor, cf. especially GCBM ii, 2.20 cleu clywitor ‘is clearly heard’ (although there is no mutation in that instance).
and also its poetry, its leaders, its marble stones;
its manifest miracles are seen each day,
people visit50 edrychator For edrych ‘to visit’ see GPC s.v. edrychaf 1(b), and for the archaic ending -ator cf. n41(t) on clywhitor. The poet is praising Tywyn church as the destination of pilgrims who were attracted by its relics and miracles. its prosperous residence,
85its uplands, its laws within its borders,51 ei gwir yn ei goror Yn is taken to mean ‘within’ here, with the poet referring to the legal privileges enjoyed by those who dwelt within the boundary (goror) of Cadfan’s sanctuary. However, if yn ei goror is translated as ‘in/at its boundary’, the phrase could refer to the practice of carrying a saint’s relics around the church boundaries, confirming those boundaries by swearing an oath on the relics, see Pryce 1993: 209n28.
its renown, its location on its coastline.

IV
How fitting it is for me through my talent and wise understanding
to commemorate a lord52 dofydd This is understood as a reference to a secular lord (the abbot?) who shared his horses with the poet (ll. 89–90), cf. GLlF 1.88; however, it is taken to refer to God in HG Cref 86 (if that’s the implication of the capital letter in Dofydd) and G 385 notes that its use for secular lords is uncommon. In favour of taking dofydd to refer to God is the fact that Llywelyn Fardd would be naming God first, Jesus secondly (l. 91), then Cadfan (l. 92), in the order we would expect. However, it is difficult to explain the gift of the horses (ll. 88–9) if it is God that is named in l. 88, unless we understand that they were a gift from Morfran through the will of God. with my new song,
because he gave me a share of swift white horses,53 cynwad A hapax form, which seems to be a combination of cyn ‘before’ + gwad ‘denial’. It is not included in GPC but G 262 suggests meanings such as ‘denied, refused’, ‘valuable’ or even ‘refusing to concede the lead, swift’. The latter meaning is adopted tentatively here, but possible also is GLlF ‘[m]eirch gwyn a nacesid o’r blaen’ (‘steeds which had previously been denied’) or even McKenna 2015: 277 (for the whole line) ‘Since he gave me a share of castoff white horses’.
90because he remembered me when he shared gifts.
The aim of my poem is to remind people of Jesus
and to praise Cadfan with His consent;
it is a song of praise that the guardian of an army deserves:
it is fitting to praise a lord who is a generous giver.
95Praiseworthy is the one God, the only protector there is,
in generous Meirionnydd, constant its gifts:54 rhodd gyngwastad It is understood as a description of Meirionnydd (l. 96), but it could also be a description of God, whose generosity was evident in the deeds of Abbot Morfran.
its choir and its celebration of mass are praised
along with its song,55 cerdd This could refer to a poem, such as this one, composed for the church and its saint, or to music, see GPC s.v. cerdd 1. As Llywelyn Fardd refers specifically to the celebration of mass here, perhaps the second sense is more likely. its warriors, its sea and its drink
and its church as well, near the ocean by the tide’s edge;56 ger dylan, ger glan dylad – hefyd A description of the church’s location near the seashore in Tywyn and close to the estuary of the Dysynni. It is quite possible, given the church’s location ‘towards the southern end of the alluvial plain south of the Dysynni estuary’ (Davidson 2001: 368), that the river flowed nearer to the church in the Middle Ages (see also n13(e)).
100its soil, its corn and its seed prosper,
the laws and the soil prosper within its territory,
its feast and mead and beneficial riches prosper,
all mixed corn and all various seeds prosper there:
praising the upholder of warriors brings me prosperity!
105Prosperous is my song amidst the multitude
of blessed people and treasures that come to you.
Joyful was the Lord God the day that Cadfan was begotten,
his blessed hand was open for the weak.
He performed miracles with His consent:
110dropping fire here into his clothing;57 Saints were often characterized by their their ability to control the four elements (fire, water, air and earth), see Henken 1991: chapter 9. This, however, is the only reference to Cadfan carrying fire within his clothes. The miracle was the fact that hot embers were dropped onto the saint’s tunic, without them having any effect. Cf. Rhys Brydydd’s description of the same miracle performed by Cadog: CadogRhRh2 ll. 5–6 Cyrchu tân ni bu lanach / A’i ddwyn ’n ei bais yn ddyn bach ‘Fetching fire – there was no one more holy – and carrying it in his tunic as a small boy’. See further Henken 1991: 65–6. The adverb yman ‘here’ may suggest that Cadfan had performed the miracle in the church.
he got rid of pestilence, of failure and of denial,
conferring a blessing upon Gwynnyr,58 Gwynnyr This is the only reference to an unknown person who, according to the context, was a leader in Meirionnydd in the time of Cadfan. his men and his country.
He spent his childhood as an acknowledged sage,59 yngnad A variant form of ynad; its basic meaning was ‘a wise man’, c., but with time it developed the more specific meaning ‘magistrate, judge’, c., in legal contexts, see GPC s.v. ynad. The line suggests that Cadfan had spent his childhood (literally his ‘rearing’) as a wise man – an example of the puer senex topos found so frequently in the Lives of the saints.
he chose heaven instead of his patrimony.
115I sing the praise of two men, as the Lord allows me to do,
two beautiful men, two fortunate ones, two who are generous benefactors,
two wise men in authority, in a harmonious song,60 yng nghyfaenad I follow G 199 and GPC and take this as a reference to the poet’s song (nâd) for the two men mentioned in l. 115. In GLlF 1.117n it is given the more general sense of ‘in harmony’.
two who are dear, two compatriots, two blessed ones,
two who perform miracles so that they cast light before them,
120two whose gifts are unhindered, bringing satisfaction to petitioners,
they were two cousins who would not plot treachery:
Cadfan defending the church along with Lleudad.61 Cadfan … a Lleudad There is no evidence in the genealogies that Cadfan and Lleudad/Lleuddad were true cousins (ll. 121 dau gefnderw ‘two cousins’), and it is suggested in GLlF 1.122n that their relationship was therefore likely to have been a ‘spiritual’ one. However, as we cannot depend on the evidence of the genealogies, there may well have been a tradition, known to Llywelyn Fardd, that Lleudad was among Cadfan’s many cousins (EWGT 57–8).
There was a tradition also that Cadfan’s church in Tywyn was the mother church of the church on Bardsey, and that Cadfan, the first abbot of Bardsey, was succeded by Lleudad: see Elliss 1950: 16; Thomas 1971: 227–31; TWS 168–73. The llogawd ysydd herwydd heli which is associated with both saints in ll. 139–40 is likely to be Bardsey, as is the llan in l. 122.

V
Powerfully does Cadfan protect the blue ocean’s shore,
the mighty son of Eneas62 Eneas For Cadfan’s parents, see n5(e), n7(e). and supporter63 gwanas A peg or a hook, often used figuratively in the poetry for a patron or lord who supports his people; see GPC. of prayer.
125Tywyn is a mighty prominence,64 cadrfryn yw Tywyn For a concise history and description of Tywyn church, and its early importance as a mother church, see Davidson 2001: 368–70; Thomas 1971: 226–31; ‘Coflein’ St Cadfan’s Church, Tywyn; Towyn. In 1620 a chapel named Capel Cadfan was recorded within its cemetery (Davidson 2001: 369n239), but nothing is known of its history. The church, as it is today, dates from the second half of the 12th century (ibid. 369), and is therefore roughly contemporary with Llywelyn Fardd’s poem. The description of the church’s location as cadrfryn (bryn = ‘hill’) is perhaps unexpected; but cf. l. 165 morlan uchel ‘the prominent coast’, and also ll. 69–70 Uchel log yw hon . / Uchel lan Gadfan ‘This is a prominent church … / the prominent church of Cadfan’. The poet is probably referring to the fact that the church is located on a slight mound, up to which the sea would have reached in the Middle Ages: see also n13(e). it is not right to be silent about it,
its homesteads are similar to the beautiful dwelling-place of heaven.
Excellently, near Dysynni,66 ger Disynni The mouth of the Dysynni is located some two miles up the coast from Tywyn. The estuary was wider and closer to the town in the time of Llywelyn Fardd, so that the church was literally ger Disynni ‘beside river Dysynni’. See n64(e). did he protect65 yd eu The preverbal particle yd is followed here by the syllabic form of the infixed third person plural pronoun (ms. y), which refers in advance to cadredd a llariedd in the following line, see GMW 56 and cf. GLlF 2.28 Mal y’th ryuegeis, yd yth geissaf (= ‘I will seek you’). Contrast GLlF 1.12n where the manuscript yd y is understood as two preverbal particles, similar to yd yr in ll. 26, 36.
splendour and liberality and generous giving:
the prosperity67 gorfyrthi The only instance of the word, for which GPC tentatively offers ‘growth, increase, gain’. of the stronghold of great and proud authority,
130the coastline’s mighty fortress, there is contentment therein.
It is my intention to fashion a poem for it,
I would make preparations, I would come to the valley of the Dyfi.68 dyffrynt Dyfi The Dyfi formed the southern boundary of Meirionnydd, and more relevant, perhaps, the southern boundary of the parish of Tywyn; see the references given in GLlF 1.32, and the map in Smith 2001: 722.
Whoever desires God, it is not a worthless act
for him to venture to cross beyond Snowdonia:69 treiddaw trag Eryri Was Llywelyn Fardd a poet from Gwynedd or Anglesey, who would have crossed Snowdonia to reach Tywyn? Would his route have taken him along the river Dyfi and along the coastline to Tywyn (l. 132)?
135ambitious is his design as he seeks it,70 ei holi Is the poet referring to the church (cf. l. 130 yndi?) or to Cadfan?
arms from Deheubarth71 arfau o Ddehau A reference to Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd’s attack on Meirionnydd in 1147, see the Introduction. causing anxieties.
He was a man of splendid hospitality before his death,
defending the riches of Bardsey72 Enlli For Cadfan and Lleudad’s connection with Bardsey, see n61(e). from common people.
There is a church over the sea73 herwydd heli This is taken to be synonymous with dra gweilgi ‘over the ocean’, c.; cf. the sense given for herwydd as a preposition in GPC 1(a) and note that it is cognate with gerfydd ‘by, by means of’.
140which Lleudad and Cadfan74 Lleudad a Chadfan See n61(e). keep safe:
the courage of many in a land surrounded by the sea,75 llyre werydre Following the pattern of gwerydre ‘land, region’ (ᚲ gweryd ‘earth’ + re), this sole example of llyre is explained in GPC as a combination of llŷr ‘sea’ + -re. As regards syntax, the combination (g)wrhydri lliaws ‘the courage of many’ is taken to be the main element, with llyre werydre depending on it; cf. the following line by the same poet, GLlF 2.53 Eryri getwi gat olystaf ‘the one with the most outstanding army (gat olystaf) defending Snowdonia (Eryri getwi)’, and for similar constructions, see Parry Owen 2003: 246.
a steadfast and popular place, where there is joy and dignity.
There is a very beautiful church to sing of
in the land of Meirionnydd, it is worthy of praise.
145I praise almighty God, I offer Him a prayer:
that I may visit, before peace and before falling silent,
the much-frequented church of Cadfan of the fine dwelling-places,
the haunt of generous folk who are more generous than the Three;76 haelach no Thri Claiming that the generosity of a patron surpassed that of the ‘Three Generous Men’, namely Nudd, Mordaf and Rhydderch Hael, was a topos in the poetry, see TYP 5–7. Cf. GLlLl 2.29–30, and in particular cf. GCBM i, 21.60 Pan voled haelon haelach no’r Tri ‘When were praised the generous men who were more generous than the Three’. Llywelyn Fardd is here praising the generosity of the pilgrims who visited Cadfan’s church.
and because of its godliness, it is not usual to find outlaws nearby
150and neither is there any poverty within,
only beautiful people and poets and the making of poetry,
only peace, and mead in drinking vessels,
only pleasant conversation whilst speaking with a poet
and fine men of no dishonour, of no miserliness,
155and a treasure-trove and blessing and graciousness,
and a well-kept golden relic of equal merit to it,
and skill and poetry and joyful music,77 cerdd a cheiniedi The basic meaning of cerdd is ‘craft’, and it could therefore refer to music as well as poetry. Similarly, ceiniedi is ambiguous, as canu could refer to the activity of poets or of musicians. There is probably a reference to both crafts in this line.
and better is our veil than78 amgen … â Although no usually follows amgen in a comparison, cf. G 22, there are a few instances of â, cf. Jones 1937–9: 336 Ac nyt amgen weledigaeth a honno a weles libanius athro ‘And the teacher Libanius had not seen a better vision than that’. that of Llanddewi,79 Llan Ddewi St David’s church in Llanddewibrefi? Gwynfardd Brycheiniog referred to its llen bali, DewiGB l. 157 A llên a llyfrau a’r llen bali ‘scholars and books and a cloak of brocaded silk’. The poets are probably referring to a cloak (llen) or mantle, or a liturgical veil that would have been placed on the rood or an image within the church; cf. GIBH 12.23n s.v. pais.
and around its border are its dignified fellow-countrymen,80 clas GPC explains it as a borrowing from the Latin classis ‘army, navy; class’; the principal meaning given, ibid. (a), is ‘monastic community, … convent’, and consequently it could refer to the actual church building itself, ‘cloister; college’. It is likely (but not certain) that Cynddelw is referring to the church of Meifod in TysilioCBM ll. 90 Berth ei chlas a’i chyrn glas gloywhir. In GLlF 1.159 it is taken that Llywelyn Fardd is referring to the monastic community at Cadfan’s church; however, as noted ibid.n., the line could be referring to those living outside the church perimeter, if claỽt denotes the wall or boundary which encircled the church and its cemetery. GPC, ibid. (b), gives the sense ‘people of the same country, band or community of fellow-countrymen’ (with examples as early as those in the ecclesiastical sense): is Llywelyn Fardd, therefore, referring here to the people of Tywyn in general who lived outside the church perimeter but within the saint’s sanctuary?
160and drinking-horns served by hand, finely adorned sustenance,
and the circle of the tide filling the estuary,
and at evensong, the master administering the service.81 gosbarth weini Gosbarth is understood as ‘organizer, ruler’, see GPC; but it could also refer to the service itself, in which case gosbarth weini could be translated ‘the provision of the service’.

VI
My poem is a provider of generosity and a portion of gifts,
the poets82 ceiniaid A derivative of the verb canu ‘to sing’, used often by the poets to refer to themselves, cf. GCBM i, 16.5 Dysgỽeyd keinyeid kyuaenad eu rwyf ‘The singers proclaim their lord’s poem’, where Cynddelw identifies with the poets who present their verses to Owain Cyfeiliog. However, it could mean ‘singers, cantors’ in its musical sense here, cf. n77(e). of Cadfan are providers on his behalf.
165Warriors from beside the sea, from beside the prominent coast,83 morlan – uchel This instance of uchel is listed under the meaning ‘high’ in the geographical sense in GPC and GLlF 1.165, and it is likely that the poet is describing the site of the church as being higher than the surrounding land, the impression given when it would have been surrounded by water at high tide; cf. n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn. Despite following GPC and taking glan to be the second element of morlan here, it is quite possible that the poet had llan ‘eglwys’ in mind, ‘church of the sea’, especially as its geographical location beside and above the sea has been a constant theme throughout this poem.
they do not hide whilst maintaining their war:
the noblemen of Meirionnydd, high fortress of the earth,84 elfydd eilfan For eilfan ‘well-defended site or height’, see GPC s.v. eilfan 1 and cf. GLlLl 24.59 eiluann Urychan Urycheinyawc ‘the high fort of Brychan Brycheiniog’; GCBM i, 9.10 Mur eluyt, eiluan gaỽr ‘A defensive wall for the land, a high station in battle’. The combination is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd, and the poet could be referring to the church on the coast at Tywyn as a place of defence (cf. ll. 165–7); or it could be a specific reference to Cynfael Castle which was unsuccessfully defended by Morfran in 1147 (see the Introduction). The second element in the compound is less likely to be the personal name Eilfan: that is how it is understood in GLlF, following G 467, associating the name with Elfan Powys, son of Cyndrwyn (see Rowland 1990: 587), and reminding us that Meirionnydd was part of Powys before c.1120. No further references to an association between E(i)lfan and Meirionnydd have been found in the poetry.
may God be with them, their favour is shared with us.
I chose my poem in the ferocity of tumult85 cynnif Its basic meaning is ‘toil, labour’, GPC s.v. cynnif 1, and in a military context, ‘battle’. The poet may be referring to the ferocity of the tide, possibly during a storm.
170beside the tide and the flow and the sea’s roar:
I praise a brave man whom the poets of the world praise
(it is brave men who rid every weak person of his penance),
a splendid perfect man endowed with talent,
possessing the indisputable talents of the customs of John.86 Ieuan St John, the apostle.
175Whilst he is in heaven on his radiant white throne,
a chieftain as he speaks, a splendid prince,
my poetry will be protected in his monastic church:87 llogawd lan Literally a llan ‘church’ that is a llogawd ‘monastery’.
may the wise and valiant God safeguard the kingdom of Cadfan!

1 Rhwyf ‘Lord’, cf. GPC s.v. rhwyf 1. Following GLlF 3.3 this is taken to refer to God, but it could also refer either to Cadfan or to a contemporary leader (be it the head of the church at Tywyn or a secular lord), in the sense that the inspiration God gives the poet will bring pleasure to that lord.

2 caru As is the case with the verb hoffi (modern Welsh ‘to like’), the poets sometimes used caru (modern Welsh ‘to love’) as a synonym for praise. For hoffi ‘to praise’, see Williams 1923–5: 39–41.

3 canrhed Cf. the sense ‘help, protection’ given in GPC. It is taken here to refer to the saint, or possibly a contemporary patron; cf. Cynddelw’s use of the noun for God in GCBM ii, 16.190 Canret cret, creuyd a’m rodỽy ‘The patron of the world, may he give me godliness’, and ibid. 17.96. However, the sense ‘society, company’ also given in GPC is possible, cf. GLlF 1.5; in McKenna 2015: 273 the line is translated as ‘I love the song of community’.

4 cedwyr nodded There is a play in ll. 8–14 on the element cad- ‘battle’ in Cadfan’s name, and it is possible that it was this element that led to his being considered the patron saint of warriors in particular: see further the Introduction.

5 Eneas Cadfan’s lineage is given in ‘Bonedd y Saint’: Catuan sant m. Eneas ledewic o Lydaw , a Gwenn teirbron merch Emyr Llydaw y vamSt Cadfan … son of Eneas Ledewig from Llydaw (?Brittany), and Gwen of the three breasts his mother, the daughter of Emyr Llydaw’ (EWGT 57). See further the Introduction.

6 cedwir It is understood as a compound adjective (ced + gwir) describing Cadfan (the nen ‘lord’) whose blessings are loyal to his followers. However, it is understood as an impersonal verb in GLlF 1.13, and the adjective is not listed in GPC.

7 Gwen Gwen Teirbron, the mother of Cadfan and daughter of Emyr Llydaw, see n26(e). For her cult in Brittany, see Jones and Owen 2003: 47–8.

8 a fad weled A reference to the sanctity of Cadfan (cf. DewiGB l. 210 Dewi mawr Mynyw, mad y’i gweled), or to the fact that whoever saw him was ‘fortunate’ (mad).

9 ni bo For ni bo, instead of the expected ni fo in a relative clause (if that is the correct interpretation), see G 67.

10 trasglwy A hapax form, explained in GLlF 1.18n as a variant of trawsgwydd / trawsglwydd, which is discussed in PKM 256–7; cf. GLlF 2.34 traỽsglỽyd uỽyhaf ‘the greatest undertaking’. For its range of meanings, see GPC s.v. trawsglwydd, trawsgwydd ‘plan, intention, aim, undertaking, provision’, c. It is taken here in combination with the verbal noun myned. Another possibility, following GLlF, would be to combine it with trais: ‘intention of violence’.

11 A difficult line to translate, although the meaning is fairly clear. Dir is understood as the noun, ‘force’, c., and for daered, ‘(fixed) legal due, tax, tribute, impost; income … bequest to the church’, c., see GPC s.v. daered 1.

12 gwyrthau glywed The verbal noun (clywed) is preceded by its object (gwyrthau), the combination modifying tair allawr gwyrthfawr. The line is translated loosely. For the lack of mutation in the adjective, gwyrthfawr, following a numeral + feminine noun, see TC 64–5.

13 gwrdd lanwed Probably a reference to the powerful tide in the Dysynni estuary, which would have been closer to Tywyn church in the Middle Ages, before the Corbet family of Ynysymaengwyn drained much of the saltmarsh in the 18th century; see Gover 2015: 30, ‘It was not until the draining of the marshes in the 18th century that the fields we see now to the north of the church were created. In the 12th century the whole area would have been covered at high tide … The church on its small mound would have towered above it’; cf. n64(e), n66(e).

14 a’r drydedd allawr Cadfan’s altar, although he is not named.

15 gwyn ei fyd ei thref As tref is almost exclusively a feminine noun (see GPC), we would expect gwyn ei byd here, as in LlDC 15.1 Gwin y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy ‘Blessed is the birch tree in the Wye Valley’. However, for gwyn ei fyd meaning ‘blessed’, the pronoun ei having lost its force, see G 743 and cf. GLlG 3.15–16 Gwyn ei fyd feirdd byd / Gwyn ei fyd anant ‘Blessed are the poets of the world … / Blessed are the minstrels’.

16 gwlad Ednywed Cf. GLlF 1.30n where this is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed ab Einudd, a descendant of Meirion Meirionnydd, its founder, see EWGT 108; WCD s.n. Ednyfed ab Einudd. The poets often refer to a region or land as belonging to its supposed founder (cf. Cynddelw’s description of Powys, GCBM i, 15.14 Gwlad Urochfael Ysgithraỽc ‘The land of Brochfael Ysgithrog’); however, no other reference to Meirionnydd as the land of Ednywed/Ednyfed has been found, nor any reference in the poetry to Ednyfed ab Einudd. The suggestion in G 439 that ednywed should be interpreted as a common noun ‘satisfaction, desire’ cannot be disregarded (cf. HG Cref 85); however, ednywed is not included in GPC.

17 If the natural word order has been changed, we could translate ‘blessed is he whose mind has been honoured therein’.

18 eglwys Dewi As noted in GLlF 1.32n, we cannot be certain which of St David’s churches the poet has in mind here – St Davids, Llanddewibrefi or another Llanddewi. However, the suggestion implicit here is that David’s church was magnificent, and that Cadfan’s church resembled it.

19 Cf. the famous description in Historia Gruffudd ap Cynan of the newly built churches in Gwynedd sparkling like stars during the reign of Gruffudd ap Cynan (d. 1137): HGK 30.17–18 echtywynygu a wnei Wynedd yna o eglwysseu kalcheit, fal y ffurfafen o’r syr ‘then Gwynedd gleamed because of its whitewashed churches, like the firmament with stars’.

20 wrth Its exact meaning is unclear; however, see GPC s.v. wrth under (2), ‘because of’, ‘in answer to’, ‘for’, ‘on behalf of’, c.

21 ar lydw The preposition ar ‘upon, over’, is taken with GLlF 1.37 to refer to the tradition that Cadfan had come to Tywyn from Brittany, as the head of a company of saints (who were mostly his cousins); see the Introduction.

22 ni faeth cerydd The third person singular preterite form maeth also takes a non-mutated object in GDB 3.21 Ny maeth bygylaeth ‘He did not foster cowardice’; however, by the 14th century, the soft mutation of the object was more usual, cf. GGMD ii, 1.167 ni faeth gaeth gythrudd ‘he did not foster grievous distress’.

23 naw radd nef The nine orders of angels in heaven, see GPC s.v. nawradd and GP 199.

24 cynhewydd This is the only example of the word outside a dictionary. Davies 1632: s.v. gives the meaning ‘qui tacet, taciturnus’, deriving it from the verb cynhewi (ᚲ tewi) ‘to silence’, cf. GPC ‘?silencer; silent person’. Cf. also G 250 where it is suggested that it could be a derivative of tew ‘fat’. However, it is tentatively taken to be a description of Cadfan here, as one who ‘pacifies’ his people, bringing them peace of mind.

25 Bendigaid a daith o’i gyweithydd A reference to the tradition that Cadfan came to Wales from Brittany, in charge of a group of saints, see n21(e) and the Introduction. For o’i ‘to his’, see GMW 53.

26 esillydd – Ymer A description of Cadfan as a descendant (esillydd) of his grandfather, Emyr Llydaw, the father of his mother, Gwen Teirbron: see n7(e). It has been shown that ymyr, emyr was originally a common noun (from the Latin imperium or imperator) and that emyr (in the combination emyr Llydaw) was later misinterpreted as a personal name (Lloyd-Jones 1941–4: 34–6).

27 Aber Menwenfer Or possibly Aber Menwenwer (cf. LlGC 6680B aber menwener, the having been added by the main scribe). HG Cref 234 suggests emending menwener > menver, and refers to Minwear in Narberth, Pembrokeshire, which had forms such as Minuer and Mynwer in the Middle Ages; see further Charles 1992: 526–7 where it is suggested that the elements could be min ‘edge’ + gwern ‘alder-swamp’. However, this reading would not give a rhyme in the fifth syllable with the gair cyrch in l. 45 (a pattern that is very regular throughout this poem). Aber Menwenỽer is also taken to be a place-name in GLlF 1.46, without explanation, but it is listed as a common noun in G 5. The poet is probably referring to the estuary of the Dysynni – cf. Lewis 2005: 50–1 (and see ibid. footnote 29) – but the name is unknown and nothing similar has been found in Archif MR. As noted above, n13(e), the Dysynni estuary was closer to Tywyn in the Middle Ages; was the name lost as the location of the estuary changed?
This seems to be an interesting example of the appreciation of landscape in the Middle Ages. St Tydecho, who had come with Cadfan from Brittany, had quite a different experience; after settling for a while in Llandudoch, he became fed up of the sea (Ni charai / Y môr llwyd ‘he did not like the grey sea’), and moved inland to Mawddwy: gw. TydechoDLl ll. 7–18. We get the impression that there were many stories about Cadfan and his company of saints in the Middle Ages, but only vague references have survived the passage of time.

28 Uchelfardd a’i pryd fegys prydydd The verb pryd, verbal noun prydu, has the meaning ‘to compose, to fashion’ here, and its object is Uchelwawd (l. 47). Is Llywelyn Fardd suggesting that he himself was not a prydydd, i.e. by saying that he is composing ‘like a master-poet’ (fegys prydydd)? Remember that he was called Llywelyn Fardd ; contrast the name of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr. The line contains cynghanedd draws wreiddgoll, with Uchelfardd, the word not included in the cynghanedd, alliterating and forming cymeriad with the first word in ll. 47 and 49.

29 preswyl The adjective suggests that the Gospel Book (Efengyl) was always at hand (GPC ‘ready, to hand’). The ‘humble lord’ (ufyl ofydd) could refer either to Cadfan or the contemporary head of the church – the ambiguity is probably deliberate.

30 Efengyl … / A’r fagl The two relics, a book of Gospels and a crosier, were presumably kept at the church in Tywyn; both were believed to have special powers as they had once belonged to Cadfan. A saint’s crozier and Gospel Book are named together in the law books as items of particular significance in relation to agreeing the boundaries of territories, rights over land, and so on: cf. Pryce 1993: 209 (who discusses their importance in the law books), ‘The crosier and gospel book will almost certainly have been relics, representing the authority of the church’s founding saint who had reputedly owned them. Originally, they may have been carried around the boundaries.’ The two contending sides would swear an oath upon the relics, and it is even possible, as Pryce suggests, that details about the boundaries of lands given to the church would be added into the Gospel Book over the centuries, as in the case of the glosses added to the Lichfield Gospels which give details regarding the rights of Teilo’s churches in Llandaf and Llandeilo. For the importance of relics in oath-taking, see ibid. 41–3.

31 A ludd i’r gelyn ladd ei gilydd Cadfan’s crozier would restore peace between enemies as would Cyrwen, Padarn’s crozier, see Williams 1941–2: 70–1.

32 noddfa For the significance of churches’ nawdd (‘sanctuary’) and braint (‘privilege’) in the Middle Ages, cf. Jones and Owen 2003: 55, ‘Both braint and nawdd are native legal concepts developed in a church context from the field of secular law where braint means the right of enjoying full legal status or privilege. In the case of a church, it is a privilege generally associated with royal grant or protection.’ In the 12th century Gerald of Wales emphasized the Welshman’s respect for the saints’ sanctuaries: ‘The more important churches … offer sanctuary for as far as the cattle go to feed in the morning and can return at evening’, Thorpe 1978: 254. The ‘lord who brings prosperity to his land’ [arglwydd gwladlwydd of the previous line], who defends the church’s sanctuary and protection, is probably Hywel ab Owain, see the Introduction.

33 Osfran An unknown hero, possibly remembered for his military prowess. Was he the father of the warrior killed at the battle of Camlan, according to the Stanzas of the Graves, LlDC 18.36 Bet mab ossvran yg camlan ‘The grave of the son of Osfran at Camlan’? It is possible that GGMD i, 4.85 rhuthr osbran refers to the military prowess of the same Osbran or Osfran, and should be translated as ‘the onslaught of Osbran’. Llywelyn Fardd is probably praising the secular lord Hywel ab Owain (see the Introduction) in ll. 53–6, before returning in l. 57 to praise Abbot Morfran.

34 Morfran The abbot of Tywyn church and probably the patron of this poem; see the Introduction.

35 dydd If it is correct to assume that ll. 59–60 praise Morfran’s military prowess and excellent defending skills (symbolized by his rhod, his round shield), then dydd can be understood here to mean ‘encounter, battle’, see GPC s.v. dydd 2(c), with diddan perhaps referring to triumph in victory. Could the poet be referring here to Morfran’s defence of Cynfael Castle in 1147 against the attack by Hywel ab Owain and his brother Cynan? See further the Introduction.

36 dau henefydd Cadfan and Abbot Morfran? Or Morfran and another contemporary leader of the church?

37 dyffrynt Tywyn itself is not situated in a valley, but the Dysynni valley is to the north-east and Cwm Maethon and many other valleys are to the south-east.

38 crog Probably a reference to a rood in Tywyn church, cf. GLlF 1.65n. Contrast the sense ‘gallows’ given in Pryce 1985: 166 where it is suggested that the items named in ll. 65–6 are concerned with the rights and territory of Tywyn, and that a reference to the gallows would convey the legal authority to bring judgement upon thieves and punish them by hanging. However, crog here is taken with côr (also in l. 65) to refer to a feature within the church itself.

39 cynnelw ‘Support’ or ‘succour, provision’, c., see GPC. It is used occasionally by the poets in the context of their relationship with their patron, but it is not always clear whether it refers to support provided by the patron or for him; cf. DewiGB n2(e) on Cynnelw o Ddewi. The ambiguity is retained here in the translation. With this line, cf. in particular GCBM ii, 2.54 Kyndelỽ a’e kynnhelỽ yn y kynnhor ‘Cynddelw supports him in the van of battle’ (to Owain Gwynedd). Llywelyn Fardd and Cynddelw are probably both referring to their place at the forefront of the court, reflecting their high status as poets.

40 uchel dymor Llywelyn is probably referring to an important feast in the church calendar, when he would have been treated with special esteem by the head of the church.

41 Uchel log … / Uchel lan The poet is possibly differentiating between llog (ᚲ Latin locus ‘place’), in the sense of the church including its lands (cf. TysilioCBM n69(e)), and llan, namely the church building itself and the cemetery which would have been enclosed by a fence or a wall. The adjective uchel probably describes the church’s prominence in the landscape, see n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn; however, it could also describe its ‘high’ status.

42 ni chymwyll neb twyll Neb ‘anyone’ is the subject of the verb, and twyll is its object. (On the lack of mutation in the object, see n5(t) on rheg.) Neb twyll could also be taken together (‘any deceit’) and understood as the subject of the verb: ‘No deceit contemplates penetrating its door’.

43 llaw gyngor It could also be an adjectival compound, with a nominal force, ‘one whose advice is bad’, cf. GLlF 1.75; McKenna 2015: 276 translates ‘The lord of the host has not tolerated cowardice [= llaw gyngor] in conflict’.

44 yr un eisior Do ll. 76–7 refer to Cadfan whilst ll. 75, 78–80 refer to Abbot Morfran? (On the abbot’s defence of his territory, see the Introduction.) The poet explains in ll. 76–7 that Cadfan, unlike the abbot, did not need any weapons or words of fury, because, as we saw in ll. 51–2, his crozier ensured peace.

45 Echdor The classical hero Hector son of Priam, who was renowned for his military strength, see TYP 337–8.

46 bangeibr A word also used by Gwynfardd Brycheiniog to describe high-status churches, see DewiGB n58(e) s.v. Meiddrym.

47 cadw The verbal noun in the sense ‘to defend’, cf. G 91. The personal name Cadfan mutates as it depends on the feminine noun bangeibr. Such loose compounds containing verbal nouns are often used as participles in the poetry (as here) or pronominally (‘the defender of Cadfan’s great church’): see Parry Owen 2003: 248–9; Lloyd 1933–5: 16–22. Contrast GLlF 1.80 where cadw is understood as a noun meaning ‘flock’ (McKenna 2015: 277 ‘The lofty church of Cadfan’s flock’). As cadw seems to be a masculine noun only in that sense (see GPC s.v. cadw 1, with examples from the 14th century onwards) we would not expect the mutated Gadfan.

48 Bangor Tywyn church belonged to the diocese of Bangor, and the poet is probably comparing the size and status of Cadfan’s church to that of the great cathedral church in Arfon. It is suggested in GLlF 1.80n that Llywelyn Fardd may even be claiming Tywyn’s indepedence from Bangor, at a time when this ancient mother church would have lost some of its status following the creation of the diocese earlier in the century, see Gresham 1985–9: 191–2.

49 ban glywhitor For the archaic verbal form clywhitor, see n41(t). With the combination ban glywhitor, cf. especially GCBM ii, 2.20 cleu clywitor ‘is clearly heard’ (although there is no mutation in that instance).

50 edrychator For edrych ‘to visit’ see GPC s.v. edrychaf 1(b), and for the archaic ending -ator cf. n41(t) on clywhitor. The poet is praising Tywyn church as the destination of pilgrims who were attracted by its relics and miracles.

51 ei gwir yn ei goror Yn is taken to mean ‘within’ here, with the poet referring to the legal privileges enjoyed by those who dwelt within the boundary (goror) of Cadfan’s sanctuary. However, if yn ei goror is translated as ‘in/at its boundary’, the phrase could refer to the practice of carrying a saint’s relics around the church boundaries, confirming those boundaries by swearing an oath on the relics, see Pryce 1993: 209n28.

52 dofydd This is understood as a reference to a secular lord (the abbot?) who shared his horses with the poet (ll. 89–90), cf. GLlF 1.88; however, it is taken to refer to God in HG Cref 86 (if that’s the implication of the capital letter in Dofydd) and G 385 notes that its use for secular lords is uncommon. In favour of taking dofydd to refer to God is the fact that Llywelyn Fardd would be naming God first, Jesus secondly (l. 91), then Cadfan (l. 92), in the order we would expect. However, it is difficult to explain the gift of the horses (ll. 88–9) if it is God that is named in l. 88, unless we understand that they were a gift from Morfran through the will of God.

53 cynwad A hapax form, which seems to be a combination of cyn ‘before’ + gwad ‘denial’. It is not included in GPC but G 262 suggests meanings such as ‘denied, refused’, ‘valuable’ or even ‘refusing to concede the lead, swift’. The latter meaning is adopted tentatively here, but possible also is GLlF ‘[m]eirch gwyn a nacesid o’r blaen’ (‘steeds which had previously been denied’) or even McKenna 2015: 277 (for the whole line) ‘Since he gave me a share of castoff white horses’.

54 rhodd gyngwastad It is understood as a description of Meirionnydd (l. 96), but it could also be a description of God, whose generosity was evident in the deeds of Abbot Morfran.

55 cerdd This could refer to a poem, such as this one, composed for the church and its saint, or to music, see GPC s.v. cerdd 1. As Llywelyn Fardd refers specifically to the celebration of mass here, perhaps the second sense is more likely.

56 ger dylan, ger glan dylad – hefyd A description of the church’s location near the seashore in Tywyn and close to the estuary of the Dysynni. It is quite possible, given the church’s location ‘towards the southern end of the alluvial plain south of the Dysynni estuary’ (Davidson 2001: 368), that the river flowed nearer to the church in the Middle Ages (see also n13(e)).

57 Saints were often characterized by their their ability to control the four elements (fire, water, air and earth), see Henken 1991: chapter 9. This, however, is the only reference to Cadfan carrying fire within his clothes. The miracle was the fact that hot embers were dropped onto the saint’s tunic, without them having any effect. Cf. Rhys Brydydd’s description of the same miracle performed by Cadog: CadogRhRh2 ll. 5–6 Cyrchu tân ni bu lanach / A’i ddwyn ’n ei bais yn ddyn bach ‘Fetching fire – there was no one more holy – and carrying it in his tunic as a small boy’. See further Henken 1991: 65–6. The adverb yman ‘here’ may suggest that Cadfan had performed the miracle in the church.

58 Gwynnyr This is the only reference to an unknown person who, according to the context, was a leader in Meirionnydd in the time of Cadfan.

59 yngnad A variant form of ynad; its basic meaning was ‘a wise man’, c., but with time it developed the more specific meaning ‘magistrate, judge’, c., in legal contexts, see GPC s.v. ynad. The line suggests that Cadfan had spent his childhood (literally his ‘rearing’) as a wise man – an example of the puer senex topos found so frequently in the Lives of the saints.

60 yng nghyfaenad I follow G 199 and GPC and take this as a reference to the poet’s song (nâd) for the two men mentioned in l. 115. In GLlF 1.117n it is given the more general sense of ‘in harmony’.

61 Cadfan … a Lleudad There is no evidence in the genealogies that Cadfan and Lleudad/Lleuddad were true cousins (ll. 121 dau gefnderw ‘two cousins’), and it is suggested in GLlF 1.122n that their relationship was therefore likely to have been a ‘spiritual’ one. However, as we cannot depend on the evidence of the genealogies, there may well have been a tradition, known to Llywelyn Fardd, that Lleudad was among Cadfan’s many cousins (EWGT 57–8).
There was a tradition also that Cadfan’s church in Tywyn was the mother church of the church on Bardsey, and that Cadfan, the first abbot of Bardsey, was succeded by Lleudad: see Elliss 1950: 16; Thomas 1971: 227–31; TWS 168–73. The llogawd ysydd herwydd heli which is associated with both saints in ll. 139–40 is likely to be Bardsey, as is the llan in l. 122.

62 Eneas For Cadfan’s parents, see n5(e), n7(e).

63 gwanas A peg or a hook, often used figuratively in the poetry for a patron or lord who supports his people; see GPC.

64 cadrfryn yw Tywyn For a concise history and description of Tywyn church, and its early importance as a mother church, see Davidson 2001: 368–70; Thomas 1971: 226–31; ‘Coflein’ St Cadfan’s Church, Tywyn; Towyn. In 1620 a chapel named Capel Cadfan was recorded within its cemetery (Davidson 2001: 369n239), but nothing is known of its history. The church, as it is today, dates from the second half of the 12th century (ibid. 369), and is therefore roughly contemporary with Llywelyn Fardd’s poem. The description of the church’s location as cadrfryn (bryn = ‘hill’) is perhaps unexpected; but cf. l. 165 morlan uchel ‘the prominent coast’, and also ll. 69–70 Uchel log yw hon . / Uchel lan Gadfan ‘This is a prominent church … / the prominent church of Cadfan’. The poet is probably referring to the fact that the church is located on a slight mound, up to which the sea would have reached in the Middle Ages: see also n13(e).

65 yd eu The preverbal particle yd is followed here by the syllabic form of the infixed third person plural pronoun (ms. y), which refers in advance to cadredd a llariedd in the following line, see GMW 56 and cf. GLlF 2.28 Mal y’th ryuegeis, yd yth geissaf (= ‘I will seek you’). Contrast GLlF 1.12n where the manuscript yd y is understood as two preverbal particles, similar to yd yr in ll. 26, 36.

66 ger Disynni The mouth of the Dysynni is located some two miles up the coast from Tywyn. The estuary was wider and closer to the town in the time of Llywelyn Fardd, so that the church was literally ger Disynni ‘beside river Dysynni’. See n64(e).

67 gorfyrthi The only instance of the word, for which GPC tentatively offers ‘growth, increase, gain’.

68 dyffrynt Dyfi The Dyfi formed the southern boundary of Meirionnydd, and more relevant, perhaps, the southern boundary of the parish of Tywyn; see the references given in GLlF 1.32, and the map in Smith 2001: 722.

69 treiddaw trag Eryri Was Llywelyn Fardd a poet from Gwynedd or Anglesey, who would have crossed Snowdonia to reach Tywyn? Would his route have taken him along the river Dyfi and along the coastline to Tywyn (l. 132)?

70 ei holi Is the poet referring to the church (cf. l. 130 yndi?) or to Cadfan?

71 arfau o Ddehau A reference to Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd’s attack on Meirionnydd in 1147, see the Introduction.

72 Enlli For Cadfan and Lleudad’s connection with Bardsey, see n61(e).

73 herwydd heli This is taken to be synonymous with dra gweilgi ‘over the ocean’, c.; cf. the sense given for herwydd as a preposition in GPC 1(a) and note that it is cognate with gerfydd ‘by, by means of’.

74 Lleudad a Chadfan See n61(e).

75 llyre werydre Following the pattern of gwerydre ‘land, region’ (ᚲ gweryd ‘earth’ + re), this sole example of llyre is explained in GPC as a combination of llŷr ‘sea’ + -re. As regards syntax, the combination (g)wrhydri lliaws ‘the courage of many’ is taken to be the main element, with llyre werydre depending on it; cf. the following line by the same poet, GLlF 2.53 Eryri getwi gat olystaf ‘the one with the most outstanding army (gat olystaf) defending Snowdonia (Eryri getwi)’, and for similar constructions, see Parry Owen 2003: 246.

76 haelach no Thri Claiming that the generosity of a patron surpassed that of the ‘Three Generous Men’, namely Nudd, Mordaf and Rhydderch Hael, was a topos in the poetry, see TYP 5–7. Cf. GLlLl 2.29–30, and in particular cf. GCBM i, 21.60 Pan voled haelon haelach no’r Tri ‘When were praised the generous men who were more generous than the Three’. Llywelyn Fardd is here praising the generosity of the pilgrims who visited Cadfan’s church.

77 cerdd a cheiniedi The basic meaning of cerdd is ‘craft’, and it could therefore refer to music as well as poetry. Similarly, ceiniedi is ambiguous, as canu could refer to the activity of poets or of musicians. There is probably a reference to both crafts in this line.

78 amgen … â Although no usually follows amgen in a comparison, cf. G 22, there are a few instances of â, cf. Jones 1937–9: 336 Ac nyt amgen weledigaeth a honno a weles libanius athro ‘And the teacher Libanius had not seen a better vision than that’.

79 Llan Ddewi St David’s church in Llanddewibrefi? Gwynfardd Brycheiniog referred to its llen bali, DewiGB l. 157 A llên a llyfrau a’r llen bali ‘scholars and books and a cloak of brocaded silk’. The poets are probably referring to a cloak (llen) or mantle, or a liturgical veil that would have been placed on the rood or an image within the church; cf. GIBH 12.23n s.v. pais.

80 clas GPC explains it as a borrowing from the Latin classis ‘army, navy; class’; the principal meaning given, ibid. (a), is ‘monastic community, … convent’, and consequently it could refer to the actual church building itself, ‘cloister; college’. It is likely (but not certain) that Cynddelw is referring to the church of Meifod in TysilioCBM ll. 90 Berth ei chlas a’i chyrn glas gloywhir. In GLlF 1.159 it is taken that Llywelyn Fardd is referring to the monastic community at Cadfan’s church; however, as noted ibid.n., the line could be referring to those living outside the church perimeter, if claỽt denotes the wall or boundary which encircled the church and its cemetery. GPC, ibid. (b), gives the sense ‘people of the same country, band or community of fellow-countrymen’ (with examples as early as those in the ecclesiastical sense): is Llywelyn Fardd, therefore, referring here to the people of Tywyn in general who lived outside the church perimeter but within the saint’s sanctuary?

81 gosbarth weini Gosbarth is understood as ‘organizer, ruler’, see GPC; but it could also refer to the service itself, in which case gosbarth weini could be translated ‘the provision of the service’.

82 ceiniaid A derivative of the verb canu ‘to sing’, used often by the poets to refer to themselves, cf. GCBM i, 16.5 Dysgỽeyd keinyeid kyuaenad eu rwyf ‘The singers proclaim their lord’s poem’, where Cynddelw identifies with the poets who present their verses to Owain Cyfeiliog. However, it could mean ‘singers, cantors’ in its musical sense here, cf. n77(e).

83 morlan – uchel This instance of uchel is listed under the meaning ‘high’ in the geographical sense in GPC and GLlF 1.165, and it is likely that the poet is describing the site of the church as being higher than the surrounding land, the impression given when it would have been surrounded by water at high tide; cf. n64(e) on cadrfryn yw Tywyn. Despite following GPC and taking glan to be the second element of morlan here, it is quite possible that the poet had llan ‘eglwys’ in mind, ‘church of the sea’, especially as its geographical location beside and above the sea has been a constant theme throughout this poem.

84 elfydd eilfan For eilfan ‘well-defended site or height’, see GPC s.v. eilfan 1 and cf. GLlLl 24.59 eiluann Urychan Urycheinyawc ‘the high fort of Brychan Brycheiniog’; GCBM i, 9.10 Mur eluyt, eiluan gaỽr ‘A defensive wall for the land, a high station in battle’. The combination is taken to be a description of Meirionnydd, and the poet could be referring to the church on the coast at Tywyn as a place of defence (cf. ll. 165–7); or it could be a specific reference to Cynfael Castle which was unsuccessfully defended by Morfran in 1147 (see the Introduction). The second element in the compound is less likely to be the personal name Eilfan: that is how it is understood in GLlF, following G 467, associating the name with Elfan Powys, son of Cyndrwyn (see Rowland 1990: 587), and reminding us that Meirionnydd was part of Powys before c.1120. No further references to an association between E(i)lfan and Meirionnydd have been found in the poetry.

85 cynnif Its basic meaning is ‘toil, labour’, GPC s.v. cynnif 1, and in a military context, ‘battle’. The poet may be referring to the ferocity of the tide, possibly during a storm.

86 Ieuan St John, the apostle.

87 llogawd lan Literally a llan ‘church’ that is a llogawd ‘monastery’.

1 Gwerthefin Dewin, Duw Cf. the punctuation in HG Cref 84; the line thus divides into 5:4 syllables as is usual in the poet’s lines of cyhydedd nawban: see Metre and Cynghanedd. Contrast GLlF 1.1 (modern orthography) Gwerthefin Ddewin Dduw, which has the alliteration Dd- Dd- in the middle of the line, after mutating Dewin > Ddewin following the adjective gwerthefin. For the provection of dd > d following a final -n, see TC 26–7. For the phrase Duw i’m gwared, cf. GCBM i, 21.147.

2 Gwyrthfawr LlGC 6680B gwerthuaỽr. It is suggested in G 750 that there was some confusion between gwerthfawr and gwyrthfawr in the manuscripts, and that some instances of gwerthuaỽr (ᚲ gwerth ‘value, benefit’) should be understood as gwyrthuawr (ᚲ gwyrth ‘miracle, virtue’). The confusion may derive from ambiguity in the exemplar’s orthography. On the pattern of DewiGB l. 217 Gwyrthfawr (ms. gwyrthuaỽr) briodawr, the form is understood as gwyrthfawr here; cf. GLlF 6.43 Dewin gwertheuin, gwerthuaỽr (modern orthography ‘gwyrthfawr’), but contrast ibid. 22.3 Duw gwerthfawr (modern orthography ‘gwerthfawr’), Gwerthefin.

3 fodd LlGC 6680B uot (-t = ‘dd’, following the scribe’s usual orthography). Cf. G 69 where it is given as an instance of the combination wrth fodd ‘for the pleasure of’; contrast GLlF 1.3 where uot is taken as the mutated form of the verbal noun bod ‘to be’ (McKenna 2015: 273 ‘Since he is ruler to me’).

4 amgyrwyf Listed in G 22 as the first person present indicative form of the transitive and intransitive verb amgyrfod ‘to desire’; it is transitive here, with caru canu as its object, cf. HG Cref 233; GLlF 1.5. (Contrast GPC where amgyrfod is defined exclusively as an intransitive verb.) GLlF 1.5 (modern orthography) presumes mutation of the object (Amgyrwyf garu); however, the manuscript’s non-mutated object is accepted here, cf. GLlLl 26.136 Y’th ganmaỽl ny gannwyf goruod ‘In praising you I do not acknowledge any excess’, where a non-mutated object, goruod, follows cannwyf (ᚲ canfod).

5 rheg LlGC 6680B rec, with r representing ‘r’ or ‘rh’ in the manuscript’s orthography. Although it is now usual for the object to undergo soft mutation where the pattern is verb + subject + object, there was no consistency in Middle Welsh, as is shown in TC 196. The same syntactical pattern is seen in ll. 7, 18, 19, 40, 61, 74, 123, and the orthography in ll. 18, 74 and 123 confirms that the non-mutated object was probably usual for Llywelyn Fardd. The non-mutated object has been retained where the orthography is of no help (i.e. in words beginning with d- or r- in the manuscript); the mid-line alliteration almost always supports this decision.

6 The line is too long by a syllable and we would expect the extra syllable(s) to be in the second half of the line (see Metre and Cynghanedd). Can am rhoddes can be compressed into three syllables (Can’m rhoddes) so that the line subdivides into the standard 5:4 syllables. (For the vocalic form of the internal pronoun following can, see GMW 56.) However, am in l. 7 must count as a syllable, otherwise the mid-line break falls clumsily on dogn rather than on Dofydd.

7 As in the case of many a toddaid in this poem, the second half of the first line is too long by a syllable. There is usually an obvious contraction (e.g. l. 15 Duw ym > Duw ’m), but there is none here, unless foddhäed counts as two syllables for the line length and three for the rhyme.

8 nerth I follow GLlF 1.14; contrast HG Cref 84 uerth. It is difficult to be confident about the reading, as u and n are so similar in the manuscript.

9 Duw ym By contracting > Duw ’m, the line subdives into the standard 5:5 syllables. Was the original reading Dwy, a variant form of Duw (see GPC s.v. duw 1)? This would give an internal rhyme with canhorthwy, and as Dwy alliterates with dyhudded, the line would contain cynghanedd sain. Similarly the cynghanedd would be strengthened by reading Dwy for Duw in l. 95 Moladwy un Duw, un diffyniad and l. 133 Ar a fynnwy Duw, nid egrygi

10 dyhudded The initial consonant of LlGC 6680B dyhuted is ambiguous as d- can represent either ‘d’ or ‘dd’; GLlF 1.15 gives ddyhudded in modernized orthography, the noun mutating following ym ‘to me’, cf. GMB 27.107 Menhid ym gyrreiuyeint (ᚲ kyrreiuyeint). However, if the non-mutated form is retained, then we have the necessary alliteration in the middle of the line between Duw and dyhudded. For examples of retaining a non-mutated consonant following ym, cf. GMB 29.20 Wedy kymynnu ym kymhenrwyt; GBF 26.9 Goreu kyrchlam ym cyrchu ataỽ.

11 llefais LlGC 6680B lleueir, which is accepted in HG Cref 84, without explanation. Lleueir seems to be the third person present indicative of llefaru ‘to speak’ (GMW 116); however, that doesn’t give good sense here, and the reading is emended, following GLlF 1.19n and G 464 s.v. eissywet, the line being one of a series containing a form of the verb llafasu (cf. ll. 18, 21, 22).

12 llefais dyn dwyn GLlF 1.61 reads ddwyn here, but the non-mutated form gives mid-line alliteration with dyn (cynghanedd braidd gyffwrdd). See n5(t) on rheg.

13 glas dylan If there is provection of dd > d here following a final -s (cf. nos dda > nos da), the line forms cynghanedd sain.

14 ysydd LlGC 6680B yssy; the final dd can be confidently restored, as the gair cyrch rhymes regularly with the fifth syllable in the next line in couplets of toddaid in this poem (ysydd / … gorwydd). The verb could be contracted to sydd here, to save a syllable, as also in l. 95 and cf. l. 91 (where reading ’sy instead of ysy would again give the standard number of syllables).

15 yd yr folhed LlGC 6680B ydyruolhed; cf. l. 36 yd yr lunied (LlGC 6680B ydyrlunhyed). For these two verbal forms, and the two preverbal particles preceding them, see the full discussion in McKenna 1990: 267–72. Here, both verbs are described as impersonal imperfect subjunctive forms with the preverbal particle yr (ᚲ ry) giving the one, l. 26, an ‘optative’ meaning and the other, l. 36, a pluperfect meaning, see ibid. 270. The subjunctive mood explains the -h- at the end of the verbal stems in the manuscript, and this is retained in the edition (contrast GLlF), as it presumably affected the pronunciation (given that it was usual for the h to cause provection in verbal stems that ended in voiced consonants, see GMW 128–9).

16 Ednywed LlGC 6680B ednywed; contrast GLlF 1.30 where the manuscript reading is emended > Ednyued ‘Ednyfed’. As ‘w’ and ‘f’ were much closer phonetically in Middle Welsh than they are today, the manuscript form has been retained in this edition. It is unfortunate that the word comes at the end of the line, outside the cynghanedd.

17 yndi LlGC 6680B yndi; third person singular of the preposition yn, cf. ll. 103, 150 and see Sims-Williams 2013: 46 et passim. The form is often proved in later poetry by cynghanedd, e.g. GHDafi 36.30 Ni’m edwyn undyn yndi ‘Not a single man knows me therein’. (The orthography does not help here, as yndi could also represent ‘ynddi’, as the scribe regularly used d for ‘dd’ following n, cf. kyndelỽ ‘Cynddelw’, c.)

18 eglwys Dewi There is provection of Dd > D following a final -s, giving alliteration between Dewi and digoned.

19 wyngalch falch wynhäed LlGC 6680B wyngalch wynhaed. The addition of falch, following GPC s.v. gwynhaed, gives a regular metrical line. Another possibility would be to add the relative pronoun (a wynhäed), following HG Cref 234.

20 ei LlGC 6680B eu, an error for y or e (as the poet is referring to God here); contrast GLlF 1.36 where the manuscript reading is given as cu.

21 yd yr lunhied See n15(t).

22 Lluniwys If this were emended to lluniws, it would make internal rhyme with Ddëws, giving a line of cynghanedd sain (Lluniws i Ddëws, ddewis ), as is common in the first line of toddaid in this poem; cf. n42(t) on rhannwys. Did the poet originally have the ending -ws and was it changed to -wys when the poem was copied? For the development and distribution of the preterite endings -wys/-ws in Middle Welsh, see Rodway 2013: 128–53.

23 edrydd LlGC 6680B edryd; for another example of final -d for ‘dd’ in this poem, cf. n59(t) rhagddudd (ms. racdud), which is proved by the end-rhyme. It is likely that the source text had -d for ‘dd’.

24 dwywawl The non-mutated object is retained here (⁠ dwywawl weinydd), which gives the expected mid-line alliteration (⁠ Duw dwywawl); see n5(t) on rheg.

25 LlGC 6680B pan dyfu chwant syllu / ar essillyt. ymher aber menwener ucher echwyt. Two problematic lines. They are arranged here as lines of toddaid, cf. GLlF 3.45–6; contrast HG Cref 85 where they are arranged as two lines of cyhydedd nawban (with ymher thus placed at the beginning of l. 46). The arguments are summarized in GLlF 3.45–6n. Line 45, as it now stands, has 12 syllables and is longer than the usual 10 or 11 syllables in this poem; also unexpected is the fact that the second rhyme of the cynghanedd sain in l. 45 (syllu) falls on the sixth, rather than on the fifth syllable. The line would be more regular if dyfu were emended to fu (without affecting the meaning), or if chwant were deleted, following G 463, but neither would improve the reading and thus the toddaid is accepted as it is.

26 Uchelwawd LlGC 6680B uchel waỽd; cf. l. 48 Uchelfardd (ms. ucheluart) and l. 49 Uchelwlad (ms. uchelwlad). It is often difficult to assess the significance of spaces, or their absence, in the manuscript but reading Uchelwawd gives initial correspondence with l. 48 and a similar pattern of beats in the line.

27 Breswyl Efengyl LlGC 6680B bresswyl uchel euengyl, with a light deletion line through uchel (the scribe probably intending to rubricate the line later when he had access to red ink, cf. the heavy red deletion line through a uo, f. 20r, l. 12). Lines 49–50 are taken to be a couplet of cyhydedd naw ban; contrast GLlF where uchel is added and the couplet is arranged as a toddaid: Uchelwlad Gaduann mynd yd gyduyt bresswyl / Uchel euegyl uỽyl ouyt (cf. HG Cref 85); it is argued there that placing bresswyl as gair cyrch at the end of l. 49 and uchel at the beginning of l. 50 not only gives better sense but also provides alliteration with the beginning of the adjacent lines (cymeriad). However, this is rejected as the gair cyrch rhymes consistently with the fifth syllable in the following line in the toddeidiau of this poem, and breswyl (which rhymes as -ŵyl) does not rhyme correctly with Efengyl. Also the poet does not consistently sustain cymeriad in the second line of toddaid in this poem.

28 noddfa yn This can be contracted to noddfa’n as the second half of the line is too long by a syllable; but at the same time the -a makes internal rhyme with dda for cynghanedd sain.

29 gorwawr LlGC 6680B or|waỽr. This is understood here as a noun ‘splendid lord’ (ᚲ gor- + gwawr) following GLlF 1.56. But if w = ‘f’, it could be read as [g]orfawr ‘great’; cf. G 564’s first suggestion. It could be argued that orfawr would give better alliteration in the cynghanedd sain with orfydd, but the Middle Welsh w was closer to the modern f than to the modern w.

30 ar hawl orfydd LlGC 6680B ar haỽl oruyt. In G 564 where the preposition ar is taken with the verb goruyt (i.e. gorfod ar). Another possibility would be to read arhaỽl orfydd as in GLlF 1.56, following G’s second suggestion. On arhawl, used in the Welsh Laws for ‘additional claim’ or ‘counter-claim’, see GPC.

31 rhoddiad As r can represent either ‘rh’ or ‘r’ in LlGC 6680B, it is unclear how to modernize the orthography of the three words in this line that begin with r- in the manuscript. Abad rhoddiad is understood as a compound of two nouns of equal status, neither modifying the other, and therefore both in their non-mutated states, see TC 125; abad roddiad ‘a giver [who is an] abbot’ is also possible.

32 rhyddyrydd LlGC 6680B ry dyryt; cf. l. 59 ry dylyf, l. 61 ry goruc but l. 58 rydyrann. Rhy is understood as a preverbal particle and is therefore joined to the following verb in every instance here. However, not only is the nature of the manuscript r- a problem (it may represent a mutated ‘r’, rhad (a) ryddyrydd, or more likely a non-mutated ‘rh’, with the verb retaining a non-mutated consonant following its object, as in GMB 10.30 Callonn klywaf yn llosgi ‘I feel my heart burning’), but the nature of the consonant following r(h)y- is also unclear, especially in instances such as ll. 57, 58, 59 where the orthography is of no assistance (i.e. d- = ‘d’ or ‘dd’ in LlGC 6680B).
TC 365–6 suggests that c, p, t would originally take spirant mutation following rhy in a non-relative clause, with the other consonants retaining their non-mutated forms; however, c, p, t, along with the other consonants, would undergo soft mutation in relative clauses. With time, as in sentences containing the negative ni, soft mutation became usual in both main and relative clauses.
Tentatively, it is presumed that the d in the verbal stems in ll. 57, 58, 59 represents a mutated ‘dd’ (although it could be argued that main-clause rhydylif should have a non-mutated consonant that would alliterate with rhod at the beginning of the following line, see n33(t)). There is further uncertainty regarding verbal stems that begin with g-, as noted in TC 365–6 (cf. GMB 3.35n on ry gated), as the manuscript g could represent an earlier lenited form of g in Old Welsh. GLlF 1.61 explains the manuscript rygoruc here by suggesting that ry is a contraction of the preverbal particle and an infixed pronoun: rhy-i-gorug.

33 rhod Cf. LlGC 6680B rod; contrast GLlF 1.60 where it is emended to rot ‘rhodd’. The feminine noun rhod ‘a round shield’ gives good sense here, following the reference in the previous line to Morfran’s military exploits. See GPC s.v. rhod 1 (c).

34 diddan dydd LlGC 6680B dydandyt; it is taken as two separate words, following HG Cref 86 and GLlF, the line thus forming cynghanedd sain deirodl, a type of cynghanedd that occurs fairly frequently in this poem; cf. ll. 25, 44, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 70, c. and especially l. 102 whose internal rhymes fall on the same 3:5:8 syllables. The cynghanedd also suggests retaining the non-mutated dydd following the adjective diddan; for -n dd- > -n d-, see TC 26–7.

35 fod LlGC 6680B uot, which would give ‘fodd’ according to the scribe’s usual orthography; hence ll. 63–4 can be translated ‘the blessed valley of unwavering faith does not trouble his wishes’. However, as that would give a line with no alliteration or cynghanedd, the mutated form of the verbal noun bod is read here, as in GLlF 1.63n. This gives a llusg rhyme with glodrydd, and a type of cynghanedd that would later be rejected as the r following the main accent in the second rhyme (glodrydd) does not occur in the first rhyme (fod), see CD 175.

36 a chôr / A môr LlGC 6680B achor mor. Cf. GLlF where ll. 65–6 are arranged as a toddaid rather than a couplet of cyhydedd nawban, and where a is added at the beginning of l. 66 to ensure that the fifth syllable (arfor) rhymes with the gair cyrch (a chôr) in the previous line, this being the regular pattern throughout the poem.

37 glas fôr LlGC 6680B glas uor. The manuscript is followed here, cf. GLlF 1.70; but glasfor is also possible, cf. HG Cref 86 and GPC.

38 ei hysgor LlGC 6680B y ysgor. Often the h- added to a noun beginning with a vowel after the third singular feminine pronoun ei was often not shown in LlGC 6680B; it is restored here, cf. l. 86.

39 eisior LlGC 6680B eisg yor with a dot under the g signifying deletion and y added above, all by hand alpha. The letters g and y were clearly similar in the exemplar.

40 yn ei The second half of the line is too long by a syllable and it is likely that yn ei should be contracted > ’n ei.

41 glywhitor LlGC 6680B glywhitor. An old impersonal present indicative form, see GMW 120–1 where the -h- that is occasionally found before the ending is explained as an ‘analogical -h-’; cf. l. 83 gwelhator, ms. gwelhator. For the form, see further Rodway 2013: 90–1.

42 rhannwys LlGC 6680B rannỽs. The line probably has cynghanedd sain, as l. 89, and so the reading is emended to provide an internal rhyme with coffäwys. But, as noted in HG Cref 235, it is possible that it is coffäwys that should be emended, to give coffäws rhannws. Similarly lluniwys, l. 37, could be emended to lluniws to provide an internal rhyme with Dëws (n22(t)), but the manuscript form is retained there as the line already has mid-line alliteration. For the non-mutated object that follows verbs terminating in -ws, -wys, see TC 189, and for the provection of r- > rh- following pan, see ibid. 161.

43 ysy The abbreviated ’sy would give the standard five syllables in the second half of this first line of toddaid, cf. n14(t).

44 Duw Cf. LlGC 6680B duỽ. The variant form Dwy would give cynghanedd sain in the line, cf. n9(t).

45 Molidor Contrast glywhitor, n41(t), where there is a -t- ‘t’ in the ending; it is shown in GMW 122 that the original ending was -d-; see also Rodway 2013: 91. It is not necessary therefore to read molitor with GLlF 1.97.

46 Llwyddyd LlGC 6680B llwytyd, cf. ll. 101, 102; contrast ll. 103, 104 which have llwytid in the manuscript. I follow GMW 119 and HG Cref 235 and take llwyddyd to be an old third person singular present form with the ending -yd, forming internal rhyme here with gweryd and hyd, thus forming cynghanedd sain deirodl, of which there are several instances in this poem. For another example of the same ending -yd, proved this time by the end-rhyme, see TysilioCBM l. 176 perhëyd. Contrast GLlF 1.100 where the reading is modernized as llwyddid and understood as a third person singular imperative form here and in the following lines (llwyddid could also be a third person present form, GMW 119). See also n48(t).

47 a phob amad Deleting the conjunction a ‘and’ would give a line of regular length as well as enriching the alliteration in the cynghanedd sain. It is possible that the scribe was influenced by the series of conjunctions in the previous lines.

48 Llwyddyd … / Llwyddyd… LlGC 6680B llwytid llwytid; see n46(t). As noted in HG Cref 235, the cynghanedd favours reading llwyddyd in l. 103, the internal rhyme with amyd giving cynghanedd sain; the same form is likely to be in l. 104. For llwyddid, which is also a third person present form, see GMW 119.

49 ym foli filwyr LlGC 6680B ym uoli uilwyr. The ‘object’ of a verbal noun does not usually mutate, and it is suggested in TC 231 that there may be an instance here of ‘presumed alliteration’, the scribe having emended milwyr > filwyr for the sake of the mid-line alliteration (cynghanedd braidd gyffwrdd); T.J. Morgan, ibid., further asks whether the original cynghanedd was ym (u)olimilwyr. Reading ym moli milwyr would be another possibility, especially as the mutation following the preposition in this type of sentence is not consistent: cf. GLlLl 19.21 Mabddysc ytt treulyaỽ treth enuyn y ueirt. However, the second suggestion in GLlF 1.104n is rejected, where the mutation in filwyr is ascribed to its being used in a vocative sense (i.e. ‘May praise song prosper for me, Oh upholder of warriors’).

50 Llwyddedig LlGC 6680B llutedic. Lluddedig ‘exhausted’ does not give good sense here: we would not expect one of the Poets of the Princes to complain that his poem was tired or exhausted! It is therefore taken to be an error for llwyddedig ‘successful’, c., see GPC. Cf. also n51(t) for a suggestion that there may have been something unusual about the shape of w in the exemplar. Llwyddedig also provides better cymeriad at the beginning of the line with with Llwydd- (ll. 100–4) and Llwyddon (l. 106).

51 Llwyddon LlGC 6680B lluỽydon. I follow GPC s.v. llwydd 1 (adjective) and take this to be the plural form used nominatively of the visitors to the church at Tywyn. For another instance of -d- for ‘dd’ in this text, cf. n56(t) on addef (ms. adef). The scribe may have misinterpreted an irregularly formed w in his source, rendering it as uỽ here. Contrast GLlF lluyddon ‘hosts’, a three-syllable form that causes the first half of the line to be too long by a syllable and the second rhyme of the cynghanedd sain to fall irregularly on the sixth syllable instead of the fifth.

52 parth Reading barth here, and in l. 168, would give a line of cynghanedd sain; cf. GBF 46.25 Ys byd guawt berthwawt barth ac atat Rys ‘A poem of excellent song will come to you, Rhys’, and GGMD ii, 11.37 Mair, dyro borthair barth ag ataf ‘Mary, send me a word of support’. Is it possible that soft mutation of p- > b- was not routinely shown in the orthography of the exemplar? Cf. l. 131 Arfeddyd yw i’m bryd prydu iddi, which would also form cynghanedd sain if prydu were read as brydu. But it may be possible also that we have here an example of the alliteration of a consonant with its mutated form in the middle of a line, see Jones 1997: 54. As we cannot be certain, the radical consonant has been retained in the edited text.

53 Duw Dofydd LlGC 6680B duỽ douyt; this could also be rendered as Duw Ddofydd, cf. G 398 which permits both readings. If there is mutation in Ddofydd, then we should also probably read ddydd (as does GLlF) for the expected alliteration in the middle of the line.

54 wrth Reading gwrth would give cynghanedd sain in the line.

55 Ef a warawd LlGC 6680B ef waraỽd; the relative pronoun is added so that the line subdivides into the standard 5:4 syllables, cf. l. 114 Ef a gymerth (ms. ef gymerth).

56 addef LlGC 6680B adef; an example of -d- = ‘dd’ in the manuscript, rather than the expected -t-, cf. n23(t), n59(t).

57 Ef a gymerth LlGC 6680B ef gymerth. Restoring the relative pronoun gives the correct line length as well as allowing the gair cyrch (addef) to rhyme regularly with the fifth syllable (nef) in the following line; cf. n55(t).

58 gywaith LlGC 6680B gyueith. G 209 gives this as a variant form of cyfiaith ‘a fellow-countryman, a colleague’ (if so, it may refer to the fact that the two men, Cadfan and Lleudad, ll. 121–2, were cousins, from the same country, Brittany); however, GPC lists it under cywaith 1 ‘companion, comrade, friend’.

59 rhagddudd LlGC 6680B racdud. The metre calls for -udd, to rhyme with budd in l. 120, see GMW 59; for other examples in this text of -d or d- for ‘dd’, see n23(t), n56(t).

60 Lleudad LlGC 6680B lleudad. The manuscript’s orthography suggests reading ‘Lleudad’, and not ‘Lleuddad’, here and in l. 140. Hywel Dafi, in a poem to Bardsey, has the form Lleudad, which is proved by the cynghanedd: GHDafi 95.12 Gennad, at Leudad lwydwyn, ll. 33 Gweniaith lydan, gwnaeth Leudad, as does Iolo Goch, probably, GIG XXIII.56 O’i wlad i dir Lleudad llwyd (although it is not necessary to answer the final d in llwyd here). Contrast GLlF 1.122, 140 (modern Welsh orthography) Lleuddad, which follows LBS iii, 369–74 and TWS 168–73 (where the confusion between Lleud(d)ad and Llawddog is also discussed).

61 glan On the lack of mutation in the object, cf. n5(t).

62 Disynni LlGC 6680B dissynny, with the end-rhyme proving that the manuscript’s final y = ‘i’. The possible llusg-rhyme between cedwis and the first syllable of Disynni may be an argument for reading Dis-, rather than Dys-, here (contrast l. 132 dyffwn, ms. diffwn); for similar examples of llusg ragobennol (i.e. with its second rhyme in the antepenultimate syllable), see Andrews 2009: 172. DPNW 135 suggest that the first element in Disynni is cognate with, or a derivative of the Latin distineo ‘to separate’.

63 yw i’m As the first half of the line is too long, yw i’m should be shortened to a single syllable, or yw could be omitted.

64 prydu LlGC 6680B prydu; should we read brydu which would give better cynghanedd (i.e. Arfeddyd bryd brydu)? See n52(t).

65 dyffwn dyffrynt LlGC 6680B diffỽn dyffrynt. For dyffwn, the first person imperfect subjunctive of dyfod, see G 414 and GMW 135. GLlF 1.132 (modern Welsh orthography) mutates dyffrynt here, expressing the destination of the verb dyfod ‘to come’; and as noted in TC 227, mutation was generally expected in this construction, after both a personal verb and a verbal noun. However, by reading ddyffrynt here we lose the mid-line alliteration (unless alliteration between a consonant and its mutated form was permitted, see n52(t)). I suggest, therefore, that we may have an example here of the provection of -n dd- > -n d-, see TC 26–7.

66 Duw LlGC 6680B duỽ; the variant form Dwy would give cynghanedd sain here, cf. n9(t).

67 Ysid LlGC 6680B yssyt, which suggests ‘ysydd’. G 62 refers to the use of yssy[dd] at the beginning of a sentence (without listing this instance). However, ysydd is a relative verb (GMW 63), and CLlH 154 suggests that the instances of its use at the beginning of a sentence are errors for ysid, e.g. ibid. (V.7a) Yssydd (> Yssit) Lanfawr dra gweilgi (cf. Rowland 1990: 539). Therefore the emended reading Yssid ‘there is’ given in GLlF 1.143 is accepted here; cf. GBF 26.1 Yssid (ms. ysyt) yn arglwyt ‘There is for us a lord’. Ysid causes soft mutation in the subject that follows it directly, see G 62 d.g. yssit.

68 cyn taw LlGC 6680B kyn thaỽ. An unexpected error; the reading must be emended for the sense, and for the alliteration between taw and tewi.

69 yw ein The line is too long by a syllable, and as there are six syllables in the first half instead of the standard five, yw ein can be contracted > yw’n, or yw can be omitted, cf. n63(t).

70 gantudd LlGC 6680B gantut which could also represent ‘ganddudd’ (cf. GLlF 1.168) following the usual orthography of the poem. I follow Sims-Williams 2013: 35 because of the lack of early evidence for the stem gandd-.

71 parth Reading barth here would give cynghanedd sain; cf. n52(t).

72 folan LlGC 6680B uolafnt; the suggestion in HG Cref 235 to emend the manuscript reading to uolann for the sake of the end-rhyme is adopted here; cf. l. 166 ymgelann, which is also a third person plural present tense verb. (Did the source manuscript perhaps have uolann, the scribe misreading this for uolaun, interpreting the second u as ‘f’, before realizing that it was a third person plural form of the verb that was needed, and correcting it to uolant?) We have, therefore, a regular toddaid in ll. 171–2; but note that the lines are interpreted as cyhydedd hir in GLlF (although they are not listed as such, ibid. p. 10). For further examples of two couplets of toddaid following each other by Llywelyn Fardd, cf. ll. 113–16 and GLlF 2.33–6. For the soft mutation that is usual to the subject directly following a third person plural verb, cf. GMB 3.141.

73 Tra LlGC 6680B y tra. The emendation gives us five syllables in the first half of this line of toddaid. But as noted in GLlF 1.175n, y tra may represent a contracted form of o hyd tra or o yd tra.

74 yn ei Contracting this to one syllable, ’n ei, gives the expected five syllables in the second half of this first line of toddaid, cf. n40(t).